This is Linda Arbuckle's base recipe (66% frit 3124, 23% feldspar, 13 kaolin/bentonite, 9 zircon, 4 tin oxide mixed to 1.62 specific gravity). It is fired at cone 05 creating a super gloss. This is applied very, very thickly (double the thickness of what a stoneware glaze would be). Yet notice how the air-vent holes did not heal during firing, these would have filled in easily had this been on stoneware or porcelain. For this reason, majolica glazes must be applied to ware not having any abrupt concave contours (this also happened on the handle-joins and where foot-meets-wall inside). Bisque must be clean to assure good adherence. Any glaze coverage issues must be repaired carefully before firing. This piece was bisque fired at cone 06, that is the reason for the air vent holes. Had it been bisque fired at cone 04 (higher than the glaze firing) these would not have occurred. However that would have extended the dip-time, this one was held under 10 seconds whereas a cone 04 bisque would have required 20 seconds.
The mug on the left has three coats of Spectrum Majolica base, painted on by brush. Drying was required after doing the inside coats, so the total glazing time was several hours. The glaze layer is way too thin and it is not even at all! The one on the right was dipped in a 5 gallon bucket-full of Arbuckle white (that was weighed out according to a recipe and slurried at 1.62 specific gravity). It took seconds to dip-apply, the thickness coverage are good. As is obvious, it makes sense to make your own base white. Then, you can decorate using the overglaze colors (e.g. the Spectrum Majolica series). Another advantage of making your own white is that you can splurge on the amount of opacifier (in this case 9% zircon and 4% tin oxide), to achieve maximum whiteness and opacity. And, you can proportion a mix of two frits (having higher and lower thermal expansion) to fine-tune the fit with the body (a big issue at low fire).
Ceramic glazes melt and flow according to their chemistry and mineralogy. Observing and measuring the nature and amount of flow is important in understanding them.
Majolica is white opaque glazed red earthenware clay having colored overglaze decoration. But if you know more about what it is technically you will have more control of your product.
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