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Our own black underglaze better accepts the clear overglaze

The commercial product was just not covering well enough. To get jet black required three or four coats. And we found that transparent dipping glazes did not cover well over it, even when it was bisqued on (upper left). By contrast, our own black (started from 90% MNP, 10% Nepheline Syenite and 10% black stain plus some CMC gum and bentonite) overglazed perfectly (upper right) compared with the commercial ones (upper left). And one brush stroke covered (although not as black as multiple coats of the commercial ones on the left). A further test with 20% black stain demonstrated that to be too high a percentage, it reacted with the overglaze.

Black underglaze covers better

Related Pictures

Black is a case where making our own underglaze makes sense

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Black underglazed bowl

I am using this on Polar Ice porcelain. This adds 20% black stain, 1.5% CMC gum and 5% bentonite to a 90:10 MNP and Nepheline Syenite mix. We mix this to have as high a specific gravity as possible (the CMC is an enabler for that). The lower water content is a key to this working well, it enables putting it on much thick enough in a single brush stroke (the commercial one we have won't do that). The freedom to fiddle with the recipe enables really tuning the way it goes and and fires.

Underglaze decoration difficult to cover with clear overglaze

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The underglaze was painted on to bisque ware (has not be fired on). This is a problem. It has a high gum content and has sealed the surface so the porous body underneath is unable to pull water out to dry it quickly. During the slow dry the little absorption that is taking place is generating air bubbles from below and these are producing bare spots. The solution is to either make your own underglaze having a lower gum content or decorate ware in the dry or leather hard stage so the bisque fire will neutralize the gum.

Why underglazes are difficult to cover with a transparent

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Underglaze brushstrokes were applied to this cup at the leather hard stage (lower left). It was then bisque fired. On the lower right a ball of the pure underglaze emerged from the same bisque firing, notice that although not melting as much as a glaze, it is certainly fusing enough to seal the surface of the bisque where applied. Notice what happens on the upper right: The bisque piece was immersed in a dipping glaze for a few seconds - the underglaze is not covering. On the upper right a transparent brushing glaze has been applied over the underglaze brushstrokes. Notice that it has covered. But three coats were needed with plenty of drying time between them, especially over the brushstrokes.

Underglaze color mayhem at cone 5!

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These are commercial underglaze colors fired in a flow tester. Underglazes are not pure stains, they are a blend of stain powders with a host recipe (a porcelain-like mix of clay, frit, silica) that matures enough to fuse to the body but not so much that it melts. The blue, green and red are from one manufacturer. Stain powders have different melting temperatures and require differing percentages to get color intensity, the base recipe of the medium should compensate for that. That is not being done here, the pink one needs less flux and the green needs more. The black underglaze (D) (from a second manufacturer) has liquefied, gassed out and is about to head down the runway! The E black (a third manufacturer) has not even started to melt or even sinter. The black engobes were plastic, the colored ones were not, likely an indication that black requires a much lower stain percentage in the engobe recipe.

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