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A lead bisilicate frit fails a leach test. Yet as-a-glaze it passes. Why?

I have soaked a lead bisilicate frit in vinegar overnight. To test whether it is leaching I pour the vinegar leachate into a test tube, soak a Q-Tip in the sensor solution and dip it into the vinegar. It turns black immediately - so we have lead in the leachate! But this is not as it seems.

Remember a key point here: The frit glass had no opportunity to be annealed - it was crash-cooled by being quenched in water. Annealing and associated toughening of the surface is a natural consequence of a glaze cooling slowly in a periodic kiln - which is why pieces made using an 85:15 mix of this same frit and kaolin, pass this test. The same 85:15 mix also still passes a lead check test if melted into an ingot and crushed into a granular powder (this is amazing given the exponential increase in surface area).

Related Pictures

Lead bisilicate frit data sheet claims high resistance to leaching

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A lead bilicate data sheet

Notice it is specifically "formulated for use in pottery glazes". And that "Lead bisilicate is extremely resistant to leaching by dilute acids, including gastric juices, which reduces its toxicity and offers the maximum safety of any of the lead products." In many countries, the use of lead glazes is still considered normal and safe. There is zero use of lead in pottery glazes in North America. Is it possible that we have tarred all lead products with the same brush? Could we at least be using it on non-functional decorated surfaces of low-fire stoneware? This would drastically reduce the energy consumption of kilns.

A way to get crystal clear glaze on terra cotta: Lead bisilicate

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Boron and lead transparent glazes on terra cotta

The mug on the left is a brush-on version of a boron-based clear glaze for cone 05. Three coats were applied and the often-encountered clouding occurred. The one on the right is an 85:15 lead bisilicate:kaolin mix. Three coats were also applied. It is an absolutely "knock your socks off" crystal-clear hyper-glossy surface that transmits the terra cotta color beautifully. And my lead testing kit passes it with no detectable lead release. Underglaze brushwork here we come! I have sought this effect for decades, this is it! Recent realizations about the slipware tradition in the UK (and their standard use of this same glaze) motivated me to get some of the frit. All I could get was a sample of the frit shards, but these milled down to a powder easily in our ball mill.

Of course, to be safe, I would still glaze the insides of pieces with a boron clear, likely as thin a layer as possible of G1916Q (with 2% added iron as a fining agent for the micro-bubbles). And, I will obviously fire these lead glazed pieces with the kiln exhaust system turned on.

Links

Materials Lead Bisilicate Frit
A standard frit of 1 molar part of PbO and 2 of SiO2. It is considered stable and non-leachable.
Glossary Lead in Ceramic Glazes
Lead is a melter in ceramic glazes and performs exceptionally well and must be misused to be toxic. It is also now environmentally pervasive. It is toxic and cumulative at any level of exposure.

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