This demonstrates the amazing melt behaviour of lead-as-a-flux for ceramic glazes. Not only does it melt early, but it softens slowly over a 300F range of temperatures before it goes off the end of the runway on this GLFL test. Then, when fired 200F hotter than that, it remains a stable, clear and uncrazed glass. Beginning around 1750F, this becomes a transparent glaze, by itself.
These were 10g balls melted using our GBMF test. Frit 3602 is lead bisilicate. But it got "smoked" by the Fusion FZ-16 high-zinc, high-boron zero-alumina! Maybe you always thought lead was the best melter. That it produced the most transparent, crystal clear glass. But that is not what we see here. Notice something else: Each frit has a melt-fingerprint. When two are similar we can see it immediately.
This piece was bought in Sinaloa in 2020. The merchant said it was made in Puebla. The lead test procedure involves leaving white vinegar in the piece overnight, pouring some of that into a test tube, dipping a cotton swab into a reagent solution and then stirring the vinegar. The color indicates lead content. As you can see, it has turned black, indicating heavy concentration of lead. This pottery is a tradition in Mexican culture and is used for food and liquid surfaces everywhere. There are manufacturers trying to make stoneware that retains the traditional appearance, but few people use it. Further refiring tests demonstrated that these are fired around 1700-1750F, a temperature sufficient to melt pure lead bisilicate into a glossy transparent but the body is still very soft and porous.
|Materials||Ferro Frit 3602|
|Materials||Lead Bisilicate Frit|
Lead in Ceramic Glazes
Lead is a melter in ceramic glazes and performs exceptionally well. However recent findings show it to be even more environmentally pervasive and toxic at low levels than originally thought
Comparing the Melt Fluidity of 16 Frits