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Two matte mechanisms: One crazes the other does not

These two glazes look the same, they are both cone 6 satin mattes. On the same porcelain. But the matteness "mechanism" of the one on the left, VC71, is a low Si:Al ratio melted by zinc and sodium. The mechanism of the one on the right, G2934, is high MgO melted by enough boron to also have plenty of SiO2 and Al2O3. The "baggage" of the mechanism on the left is high thermal expansion and crazing (drastically reducing strength and providing a space for a germ zoo). If your ware develops this your customers will bring it back for replacement. No change in firing will fix this, the body and glaze are not expansion compatible. Period.

A matte glaze crazing badly

Related Pictures

This is crazing. Crazing is bad on functional ware.

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A crazing glaze on a porcelain mug

The left glaze is "stretched" on the clay so it cracks (it calculates to a high thermal expansion so this is not a surprise). This usually appears after firing but can appear years later. When the lines are close together like this it is more serious. If the effect is intended, it is called "crackle" (but no one would intend this on functional ware). The one on the left calculates much lower - and stays uncrazed indefinitely. Potters, hobbyists and artists invariably bump into this issue whether using commercial glazes or making their own.

"Art language" solutions don't work, at least some technical words are needed to even understand what this simply is: A mismatch in the thermal expansions of glaze and body. Most ceramics expand slightly on heating and contract on cooling. Even though the amount of change is very small, ceramics are brittle so if a glaze is stretched on the ware, it will crack to relieve the stress. Crazing appears when ceramic is cooled and the glaze contracts more than the clay to which it is rigidly attached.

Why does VC71 not cutlery mark when it is barely melting?

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Left: VC71 cone 6 silky matte glaze. Right: An adjustment that adds boron melter and SiO2/Al2O3 (which preserves their ratio). The dramatic improvement in melting was unexpected. Even though B has the same Si:Al ratio, it is completely glossy. Why? A (left) is simply not melting completely, that is why it is silky matte (not a true matte). Yet it feels like a good silky matte and is resistant to cutlery marking. Why? Touch alone can be misleading. Cutlery marking usually happens with matte glazes or heavily opacified whites, this is neither, it is an under-fired glossy glaze, fired just high enough not to mark.

Is the V.C. 71 pottery glaze a true matte?

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The top glaze is V.C. 71, a popular matte cone 6 glaze used by potters. Bottom is G2934 matte, a public domain recipe produced by Plainsman Clays. The latter is a high-MgO matte, it melts well and does not cutlery mark or stain easily. As evidence that it is a true matte, notice that it is still matte when fired to cone 7 or 8. V.C. 71, while having a similar pleasant silky matte surface at cone 6, converts to a glossy if fired higher. This suggests that the cone 6 matteness is due to incomplete melting. For the same reason, it is whiter in color (as soon as it begins to melt and have depth the color darkens).

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Glossary Co-efficient of Thermal Expansion
The co-efficient of thermal expansion of ceramic bodies and glazes determines how well they fit each other and their ability to survive sudden heating and cooling without cracking.
Glossary Calculated Thermal Expansion
The thermal expansion of a glaze can be predicted (relatively) and adjusted using simple glaze chemistry. Body expansion cannot be calculated.
Troubles Glaze Crazing
Ask the right questions to analyse the real cause of glaze crazing. Do not just treat the symptoms, the real cause is thermal expansion mismatch with the body.

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