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Laminations in pugged clay: Wedge it or lose the ware

These are cross-cuts from slugs of a production run of clay that was improperly pugged (inadequate vacuum). The problem becomes evident weeks or months after pugging. In this case the clay body contained 2% talc, our production must make doubly sure to monitor vacuum pressure at all times (or laminations will result). These are not a problem if clay is wedged well before use. If not the laminations "build in" failure points that initiate drying and firing cracks later. Even if pieces survive the drying and firing processes, weaknesses can persist making them more prone to failure-on-impact or stress. This being said, does that mean you do not need to wedge plastic clay bodies if they are not laminated? No. All clays laminate to some extent when pugged.

Laminations in pugged clay

Related Pictures

Frozen clay suffers laminations. Does that really harm it?

Tap picture for full size and resolution

No. Ordinary laminations from improper pugging can simply be wedged out and the clay is still fine to use. But freezing is a different matter. No chemical changes happen when clay is frozen, the water connections between clay particles are simply disrupted. Frost has taken this piece of clay well beyond simple laminations, but it has not become soggy - it can be brought back to normal workability by more thorough wedging. What if the clay gets frozen solid and is soggy and falling apart on the edges? Will wedging restore the workability? Yes. But it will require a plaster slab or table and rubber rib (to be able to deal with the mushy material) and determined wedging - but it is certainly doable.

Links

Glossary Laminations
Laminations because of improper pugging of a clay body will cause separations and drying cracks in the ware.
Glossary Wedging
The process of mixing a plastic clay by hand before forming it. Similar to kneading of bread dough, it is considered an essential step by most potters.
Glossary Kneading clay
Glossary Pugmill
The practice of removing air from clay as it is pugged. Deaired clay has better forming properties and produces a smoother fired surface.

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