Monthly Tech-Tip from Tony Hansen SignUp

No tracking! No ads!That's why this page loads quickly!

2816 | 2815 | 2814 | 2813 | 2812 | 2811 | 2793 | 2794 | 2795 | 2796 | 2797 | 2798 | 2799 | 2800 | 2801 | 2802 | 2803 | 2804 | 2805 | 2806 | 2807 | 2808 | 2809 | 2810 | 2791 | 2792 | 2790 | 2787 | 2788 | 2783 | 2784 | 2785 | 2786 | 2781 | 2782 | 2780 | 2777 | 2778 | 2779 | 2776 | 2775 | 2774 | 2773 | 2772 | 2771 | 2769 | 2770 | 2768 | 2767 | 2766 | 2764 | 2765 | 2762 | 2763 | 2761 | 2759 | 2758 | 2757 | 2756 | 2752 | 2753 | 2754 | 2755 | 2750 | 2751 | 2748 | 2749 | 2747 | 2744 | 2745 | 2746 | 2742 | 2743 | 2740 | 2741 | 2739 | 2737 | 2738 | 2736 | 2735 | 2734 | 2733 | 2732 | 2729 | 2730 | 2731 | 2728 | 2727 | 2726 | 2723 | 2724 | 2725 | 2722 | 2719 | 2720 | 2721 | 2718 | 2717 | 2716 | 2715 | 2714 | 2713 | 2711 | 2709 | 2708 | 2706 | 2707 | 2704 | 2705 | 2703 | 2701 | 2702 | 2700 | 2693 | 2694 | 2695 | 2696 | 2697 | 2698 | 2699 | 2692 | 2690 | 2691 | 2689 | 2688 | 2687 | 2686 | 2685 | 2684 | 2683 | 2680 | 2681 | 2682 | 2678 | 2679 | 2677 | 2676 | 2675 | 2674 | 2673 | 2672 | 2671 | 2670 | 2669 | 2666 | 2667 | 2668 | 2664 | 2665 | 2662 | 2663 | 2660 | 2661 | 2656 | 2657 | 2658 | 2659 | 2655 | 2654 | 2653 | 2652 | 2649 | 2650 | 2651 | 2646 | 2647 | 2648 | 2643 | 2644 | 2641 | 2642 | 2639 | 2640 | 2637 | 2638 | 2635 | 2636 | 2633 | 2634 | 2631 | 2632 | 2630 | 2629 | 2627 | 2628 | 2624 | 2626 | 2621 | 2622 | 2623 | 2618 | 2619 | 2617 | 2614 | 2615 | 2616 | 2613 | 2612 | 2607 | 2608 | 2609 | 2610 | 2611 | 2606 | 2605 | 2602 | 2603 | 2604 | 2600 | 2601 | 2599 | 2598 | 2597 | 2591 | 2592 | 2593 | 2594 | 2585 | 2586 | 2587 | 2588 | 2589 | 2590 | 2584 | 2583 | 2582 | 2581 | 2578 | 2580 | 2576 | 2577 | 2573 | 2574 | 2575 | 2572 | 2571 | 2566 | 2567 | 2569 | 2570 | 2563 | 2564 | 2565 | 2562 | 2561 | 2560 | 2558 | 2559 | 2557 | 2556 | 2554 | 2555 | 2551 | 2552 | 2553 | 2548 | 2549 | 2550 | 2547 | 2545 | 2546 | 2542 | 2543 | 2544 | 2540 | 2541 | 2539 | 2537 | 2536 | 2533 | 2534 | 2535 | 2531 | 2532 | 2530 | 2528 | 2527 | 2524 | 2522 | 2523 | 2521 | 2519 | 2520 | 2518 | 2517 | 2516 | 2515 | 2514 | 2513 | 2511 | 2512 | 2509 | 2508 | 2506 | 2507 | 2505 | 2504 | 2503 | 2502 | 2501 | 2499 | 2490 | 2494 | 2495 | 2496 | 2497 | 2498 | 2489 | 2488 | 2487 | 2486 | 2485 | 2484 | 2483 | 2482 | 2481 | 2479 | 2480 | 2478 | 2474 | 2475 | 2476 | 2477 | 2472 | 2473 | 2471 | 2470 | 2465 | 2466 | 2467 | 2468 | 2469 | 2464 | 2461 | 2463 | 2460 | 2459 | 2458 | 2457 | 2454 | 2455 | 2456 | 2451 | 2452 | 2453 | 2449 | 2450 | 2447 | 2448 | 2442 | 2443 | 2444 | 2445 | 2446 | 2440 | 2441 | 2439 | 2436 | 2437 | 2438 | 2434 | 2435 | 2433 | 2432 | 2429 | 2430 | 2431 | 2425 | 2426 | 2427 | 2428 | 2422 | 2423 | 2424 | 2421 | 2417 | 2418 | 2419 | 2420 | 2416 | 2415 | 2412 | 2411 | 2410 | 2408 | 2409 | 2407 | 2406 | 2405 | 2403 | 2404 | 2402 | 2401 | 2400 | 2399 | 2398 | 2397 | 2396 | 2395 | 2394 | 2392 | 2393 | 2390 | 2389 | 2387 | 2386 | 2385 | 2384 | 2383 | 2380 | 2375 | 2376 | 2377 | 2378 | 2379 | 2374 | 2373 | 2372 | 2371 | 2369 | 2370 | 2366 | 2368 | 2361 | 2362 | 2363 | 2364 | 2365 | 2360 | 2358 | 2359 | 2355 | 2356 | 2357 | 2354 | 2353 | 2350 | 2351 | 2348 | 2349 | 2346 | 2347 | 2344 | 2345 | 2343 | 2342 | 2341 | 2337 | 2339 | 2340 | 2335 | 2336 | 2334 | 2333 | 2328 | 2329 | 2330 | 2331 | 2332 | 2327 | 2326 | 2323 | 2324 | 2325 | 2322 | 2321 | 2316 | 2317 | 2318 | 2319 | 2320 | 2314 | 2315 | 2311 | 2312 | 2313 | 2309 | 2308 | 2306 | 2307 | 2304 | 2305 | 2303 | 2299 | 2300 | 2301 | 2297 | 2294 | 2295 | 2296 | 2292 | 2278 | 2279 | 2280 | 2282 | 2283 | 2284 | 2285 | 2286 | 2287 | 2288 | 2289 | 2290 | 2273 | 2274 | 2275 | 2276 | 2277 | 2271 | 2272 | 2270 | 2269 | 2267 | 2266 | 2265 | 2263 | 2264 | 2262 | 2260 | 2261 | 2259 | 2258 | 2257 | 2255 | 2256 | 2254 | 2250 | 2252 | 2249 | 2247 | 2248 | 2246 | 2242 | 2243 | 2245 | 2239 | 2240 | 2241 | 2235 | 2236 | 2237 | 2238 | 2234 | 2233 | 2232 | 2231 | 2230 | 2229 | 2225 | 2226 | 2224 | 2222 | 2223 | 2220 | 2221 | 2218 | 2219 | 2216 | 2217 | 2214 | 2215 | 2213 | 2211 | 2212 | 2210 | 2209 | 2208 | 2207 | 2206 | 2205 | 2203 | 2204 | 2202 | 2201 | 2199 | 2200 | 2198 | 2197 | 2195 | 2196 | 2194 | 2192 | 2193 | 2191 | 2189 | 2190 | 2188 | 2186 | 2187 | 2185 | 2184 | 2182 | 2183 | 2180 | 2178 | 2179 | 2176 | 2177 | 2172 | 2173 | 2174 | 2175 | 2171 | 2166 | 2167 | 2168 | 2169 | 2170 | 2165 | 2156 | 2157 | 2158 | 2159 | 2161 | 2162 | 2164 | 2153 | 2154 | 2155 | 2151 | 2150 | 2148 | 2149 | 2142 | 2143 | 2144 | 2145 | 2146 | 2147 | 2140 | 2141 | 2138 | 2139 | 2136 | 2137 | 2135 | 2129 | 2130 | 2131 | 2132 | 2133 | 2134 | 2128 | 2127 | 2126 | 2125 | 2124 | 2121 | 2122 | 2123 | 2119 | 2118 | 2117 | 2115 | 2116 | 2114 | 2113 | 2112 | 2111 | 2109 | 2108 | 2107 | 2106 | 2104 | 2105 | 2101 | 2102 | 2103 | 2099 | 2100 | 2096 | 2097 | 2094 | 2095 | 2093 | 2092 | 2091 | 2089 | 2090 | 2088 | 2087 | 2086 | 2085 | 2084 | 2082 | 2083 | 2081 | 2078 | 2079 | 2080 | 2076 | 2077 | 2073 | 2074 | 2075 | 2072 | 2071 | 2069 | 2066 | 2067 | 2068 | 2065 | 2064 | 2060 | 2061 | 2062 | 2059 | 2057 | 2058 | 2052 | 2053 | 2054 | 2055 | 2056 | 2049 | 2050 | 2051 | 2048 | 2047 | 2046 | 2042 | 2043 | 2044 | 2045 | 2040 | 2039 | 2038 | 2036 | 2035 | 2029 | 2030 | 2031 | 2033 | 2034 | 2027 | 2024 | 2025 | 2026 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2008 | 2009 | 2007 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 1993 | 1995 | 1998 | 2000 | 1990 | 1991 | 1987 | 1988 | 1986 | 1983 | 1984 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1974 | 1975 | 1973 | 1972 | 1970 | 1968 | 1969 | 1967 | 1966 | 1965 | 1964 | 1962 | 1961 | 1959 | 1960 | 1955 | 1956 | 1957 | 1954 | 1952 | 1953 | 1950 | 1951 | 1948 | 1947 | 1946 | 1944 | 1945 | 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1939 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1932 | 1933 | 1931 | 1930 | 1928 | 1927 | 1922 | 1923 | 1924 | 1925 | 1926 | 1916 | 1918 | 1919 | 1920 | 1921 | 1915 | 1914 | 1906 | 1907 | 1908 | 1909 | 1910 | 1911 | 1912 | 1913 | 1902 | 1904 | 1905 | 1895 | 1896 | 1897 | 1899 | 1900 | 1901 | 1891 | 1893 | 1894 | 1890 | 1888 | 1889 | 1887 | 1885 | 1882 | 1883 | 1884 | 1874 | 1875 | 1876 | 1877 | 1879 | 1870 | 1871 | 1872 | 1873 | 1868 | 1867 | 1866 | 1865 | 1864 | 1856 | 1857 | 1858 | 1859 | 1860 | 1861 | 1862 | 1863 | 1854 | 1855 | 1850 | 1851 | 1852 | 1848 | 1849 | 1846 | 1847 | 1843 | 1844 | 1845 | 1842 | 1831 | 1832 | 1833 | 1834 | 1835 | 1836 | 1838 | 1839 | 1840 | 1841 | 1828 | 1829 | 1830 | 1827 | 1826 | 1825 | 1823 | 1824 | 1818 | 1819 | 1820 | 1821 | 1822 | 1817 | 1815 | 1816 | 1814 | 1812 | 1811 | 1809 | 1810 | 1807 | 1806 | 1805 | 1804 | 1803 | 1802 | 1796 | 1797 | 1798 | 1799 | 1800 | 1801 | 1792 | 1793 | 1794 | 1791 | 1790 | 1789 | 1788 | 1786 | 1785 | 1781 | 1782 | 1783 | 1784 | 1780 | 1779 | 1776 | 1775 | 1772 | 1773 | 1770 | 1769 | 1768 | 1767 | 1763 | 1765 | 1766 | 1762 | 1760 | 1761 | 1757 | 1758 | 1759 | 1755 | 1749 | 1750 | 1751 | 1752 | 1753 | 1754 | 1748 | 1747 | 1745 | 1744 | 1742 | 1743 | 1740 | 1736 | 1737 | 1735 | 1733 | 1732 | 1729 | 1722 | 1723 | 1726 | 1727 | 1716 | 1717 | 1718 | 1715 | 1714 | 1712 | 1713 | 1711 | 1710 | 1709 | 1708 | 1706 | 1705 | 1699 | 1700 | 1701 | 1702 | 1703 | 1704 | 1693 | 1694 | 1695 | 1696 | 1697 | 1692 | 1687 | 1690 | 1691 | 1685 | 1686 | 1683 | 1684 | 1682 | 1681 | 1679 | 1677 | 1678 | 1675 | 1674 | 1671 | 1672 | 1669 | 1668 | 1665 | 1666 | 1667 | 1663 | 1662 | 1659 | 1658 | 1657 | 1651 | 1652 | 1653 | 1654 | 1655 | 1656 | 1650 | 1639 | 1640 | 1641 | 1642 | 1643 | 1644 | 1645 | 1646 | 1647 | 1648 | 1649 | 1638 | 1637 | 1636 | 1630 | 1631 | 1632 | 1634 | 1635 | 1628 | 1623 | 1625 | 1626 | 1627 | 1618 | 1619 | 1622 | 1614 | 1615 | 1616 | 1617 | 1613 | 1603 | 1606 | 1607 | | 1609 | 1611 | 1612 | 1591 | 1592 | 1593 | 1594 | 1595 | 1596 | 1597 | 1598 | 1599 | 1600 | 1602 | 1578 | 1579 | 1580 | 1581 | 1582 | 1583 | 1584 | 1585 | 1586 | 1587 | 1588 | 1589 | 1590 | 1576 | 1577 | 1575 | 1574 | 1573 | 1570 | 1565 | 1566 | 1567 | 1568 | 1569 | 1564 | 1560 | 1559 | 1555 | 1556 | 1557 | 1558 | 1551 | 1553 | 1554 | 1548 | 1549 | 1550 | 1547 | 1545 | 1546 | 1543 | 1544 | 1537 | 1538 | 1542 | 1533 | 1531 | 1529 | 1528 | 1525 | 1526 | 1527 | 1523 | 1524 | 1521 | 1520 | 1517 | 1518 | 1519 | 1515 | 1516 | 1509 | 1510 | 1511 | 1504 | 1505 | 1506 | 1507 | 1508 | 1499 | 1500 | 1501 | 1502 | 1503 | 1497 | 1498 | 1492 | 1493 | 1494 | 1495 | 1496 | 1489 | 1488 | 1487 | 1485 | 1486 | 1484 | 1479 | 1481 | 1483 | 1621 | 1477 | 1476 | 1472 | 1473 | 1471 | 1470 | 1468 | 1469 | 1467 | 1454 | 1455 | 1457 | 1458 | 1459 | 1460 | 1461 | 1462 | 1463 | 1453 | 1452 | 1451 | 1446 | 1447 | 1448 | 1449 | 1450 | 1442 | 1443 | 1432 | 1433 | 1435 | 1436 | 1437 | 1438 | 1439 | 1341 | 1342 | 1343 | 1344 | 1339 | 1340 | 1337 | 1329 | 1330 | 1331 | 1332 | 1333 | 1335 | 1328 | 1327 | 1321 | 1322 | 1323 | 1324 | 1325 | 1326 | 1320 | 1301 | 1302 | 1305 | 1307 | 1297 | 1298 | 1299 | 1300 | 1291 | 1292 | 1293 | 1295 | 1296 | 1290 | 1280 | 1281 | 1282 | 1285 | 1286 | 1287 | 1288 | 1279 | 1276 | 1277 | 1278 | 1275 | 1264 | 1265 | 1266 | 1268 | 1269 | 1270 | 1271 | 1272 | 1273 | 1261 | 1262 | 1259 | 1260 | 1257 | 1258 | 1255 | 1254 | 1252 | 1250 | 1249 | 1247 | 1243 | 1244 | 1245 | 1246 | 1241 | 1242 | 1240 | 1238 | 1239 | 1237 | 1236 | 1235 | 1231 | 1232 | 1233 | 1234 | 1227 | 1228 | 1229 | 1230 | 1224 | 1225 | 1226 | 1223 | 1220 | 1221 | 1222 | 1215 | 1216 | 1217 | 1218 | 1211 | 1212 | 1213 | 1209 | 1210 | 1208 | 1202 | 1204 | 1205 | 1206 | 1207 | 1200 | 1201 | 1199 | 1196 | 1198 | 1192 | 1193 | 1189 | 1190 | 1191 | 1185 | 1178 | 1179 | 1181 | 1182 | 1184 | 1166 | 1167 | 1168 | 1169 | 1171 | 1173 | 1174 | 1164 | 1162 | 1163 | 1153 | 1154 | 1155 | 1156 | 1157 | 1158 | 1159 | 1160 | 1161 | 1151 | 1152 | 1147 | 1148 | 1149 | 1146 | 1142 | 1143 | 1144 | 1145 | 1138 | 1140 | 1136 | 1133 | 1134 | 1135 | 1132 | 629 | 1130 | 1131 | 1129 | 1123 | 1124 | 1125 | 1126 | 1127 | 1128 | 1122 | 1121 | 1120 | 1119 | 1116 | 1117 | 1118 | 1115 | 1114 | 1108 | 1109 | 1111 | 1112 | 1113 | 1107 | 1106 | 1099 | 1100 | 1101 | 1102 | 1103 | 1098 | 1094 | 1095 | 1097 | 1093 | 1091 | 1092 | 1089 | 1090 | 1088 | 1085 | 1086 | 1083 | 679 | 1081 | 1082 | 1078 | 1079 | 1080 | 1076 | 1077 | 1075 | 1074 | 743 | 1072 | 1073 | 1070 | 1071 | 1069 | 1068 | 1067 | 1057 | 1058 | 1059 | 1060 | 1061 | 1062 | 1063 | 1064 | 1065 | 1066 | 1056 | 1055 | 730 | 1047 | 1048 | 1049 | 1050 | 1051 | 1052 | 1053 | 1042 | 1043 | 1044 | 1045 | 1046 | 1036 | 1037 | 1038 | 1039 | 1040 | 1041 | 1034 | 1035 | 910 | 1032 | 935 | 1030 | 1031 | 1026 | 1027 | 1028 | 1029 | 1024 | 1025 | 1023 | 1021 | 1022 | 1018 | 1020 | 1017 | 684 | 1016 | 1015 | 890 | 1014 | 1011 | 1012 | 1013 | 1010 | 1009 | 1008 | 1007 | 660 | 1006 | 690 | 1005 | 1002 | 1003 | 1004 | 997 | 999 | 1000 | 1001 | 996 | 995 | 994 | 993 | 987 | 988 | 989 | 990 | 991 | 992 | 984 | 985 | 986 | 431 | 983 | 982 | 979 | 980 | 981 | 961 | 977 | 978 | 975 | 976 | 972 | 974 | 969 | 970 | 971 | 968 | 911 | 967 | 817 | 850 | 853 | 658 | 659 | 439 | 966 | 964 | 963 | 960 | 958 | 959 | 957 | 954 | 955 | 956 | 952 | 953 | 949 | 950 | 951 | 947 | 948 | 946 | 945 | 944 | 943 | 942 | 941 | 938 | 936 | 937 | 934 | 931 | 932 | 933 | 752 | 292 | 815 | 816 | 819 | 316 | 832 | 839 | 328 | 846 | 847 | 854 | 855 | 863 | 864 | 865 | 362 | 879 | 888 | 891 | 918 | 716 | 722 | 724 | 741 | 744 | 746 | 749 | 929 | 927 | 928 | 925 | 926 | 924 | 153 | 923 | 919 | 921 | 922 | 916 | 914 | 912 | 908 | 909 | 907 | 905 | 906 | 464 | 354 | 904 | 878 | 900 | 893 | 894 | 895 | 896 | 897 | 892 | 898 | 899 | 889 | 351 | 885 | 886 | 880 | 881 | 883 | 884 | 667 | 874 | 875 | 361 | 930 | 940 | 429 | 430 | 873 | 825 | 826 | 828 | 829 | 844 | 845 | 849 | 852 | 856 | 857 | 858 | 859 | 860 | 870 | 871 | 697 | 764 | 862 | 861 | 818 | 851 | 663 | 830 | 831 | 833 | 834 | 835 | 836 | 840 | 841 | 842 | 843 | 824 | 837 | 822 | 820 | 801 | 810 | 811 | 812 | 814 | 628 | 656 | 657 | 661 | 662 | 664 | 665 | 666 | 668 | 669 | 670 | 674 | 675 | 677 | 678 | 680 | 681 | 682 | 683 | 685 | 686 | 687 | 688 | 691 | 692 | 693 | 694 | 699 | 700 | 701 | 702 | 703 | 704 | 705 | 713 | 459 | 715 | 717 | 719 | 720 | 721 | 725 | 729 | 731 | 734 | 736 | 740 | 748 | 751 | 754 | 755 | 756 | 757 | 758 | 759 | 760 | 761 | 711 | 813 | 809 | 808 | 803 | 805 | 364 | 802 | 799 | 800 | 798 | 796 | 797 | 795 | 791 | 792 | 793 | 794 | 461 | 790 | 787 | 788 | 770 | 771 | 772 | 773 | 774 | 775 | 777 | 782 | 784 | 768 | 769 | 767 | 765 | 766 | 626 | 726 | 727 | 728 | 710 | 706 | 295 | 444 | 484 | 462 | 651 | 652 | 654 | 655 | 643 | 646 | 647 | 648 | 649 | 650 | 630 | 631 | 632 | 633 | 634 | 635 | 636 | 638 | 639 | 640 | 564 | 578 | 582 | 583 | 584 | 587 | 588 | 590 | 591 | 592 | 593 | 594 | 595 | 596 | 597 | 598 | 599 | 600 | 601 | 602 | 603 | 604 | 605 | 606 | 607 | 608 | 609 | 610 | 611 | 613 | 614 | 615 | 616 | 617 | 618 | 619 | 620 | 623 | 437 | 438 | 442 | 443 | 447 | 448 | 455 | 465 | 466 | 472 | 473 | 481 | 482 | 483 | 576 | 575 | 562 | 532 | 535 | 537 | 539 | 541 | 543 | 545 | 547 | 551 | 553 | 555 | 513 | 514 | 515 | 516 | 517 | 518 | 519 | 520 | 521 | 522 | 523 | 524 | 525 | 526 | 527 | 528 | 530 | 531 | 500 | 501 | 502 | 503 | 504 | 505 | 506 | 507 | 508 | 509 | 511 | 487 | 488 | 489 | 491 | 492 | 493 | 495 | 496 | 498 | 499 | 458 | 456 | 360 | 294 | 293 | 415 | 416 | 404 | 402 | 398 | 401 | 377 | 378 | 386 | 372 | 369 | 368 | 358 | 344 | 353 | 355 | 321 | 322 | 325 | 319 | 8 | 272 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 296 | 45 | 86 | 100 | 106 | 117 | 159 | 212 | 216 | 235

Cross section comparison between cone 04 terra cotta and cone 6 iron stoneware

Both of these bodies have a range of particle sizes (from 42 mesh and finer). The glaze on the cone 04 section (close-up on the left) is very well melted, but its interfacial zone with the body is narrow, it is basically just "stuck on" the surface (so it must be tuned to match the thermal expansion of the body to prevent crazing/shivering). The body is not developing any clearly visible glassy phases, meaning that any strength it has is purely a product of sintering. On the right, the interfacial zone of glaze-with-stoneware-body is wider. The body has incipient melting (tiny feldspar particles are fusing and beginning to dissolve into the surfaces of surrounding ones). The color has changed from red to brown.

Closeup of fired terra cotta and stoneware

Links

Glossary Clay Body Porosity
In ceramics, porosity is considered an indication of density, and therefore strength and durability. Porosity is measured by the weight increase when boiled in water.
Glossary Vitrification
The term vitrified refers to the fired state of a piece of porcelain or stoneware. Vitrified ware has been fired high enough to make it very strong, hard and dense.
Glossary Sintering
A densification process occurring within a ceramic kiln. With increasing temperatures particles pack tighter and tighter together, bonding more and more into a stronger and stronger matrix.
Glossary Terra cotta
The term Terra Cotta can refer to a process or a kind of clay. Terra cotta clays are high in iron and available almost everywhere. While they vitrify at low temperatures, they are typically fired much lower than that and covered with colorful glazes.

Tell Us How to Improve This Page

Or ask a question and we will alter this page to better answer it.

Email Address

Name

Subject

Message


CAPTCHA



https://digitalfire.com, All Rights Reserved
Privacy Policy