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How to make a black cone 6 oxidation clay body

Many cone 6 black clay bodies are available commercially. Some manufacturers are using manganese dioxide but the fume hazards seem far too serious to risk. Is it practical to slurry up your own from a recipe? Yes. Probably the most common method is the addition of raw umber or burnt umber. Umber behaves as a flux so when added to middle temperature bodies the resulting clay becomes too vitreous (so warping, bloating and glaze blisters are common). The secret is too add the umber to a cone 10 stoneware and the umber fluxes it to a cone 6 stoneware. Another method is the use of a black stain. Stains carry no danger of bloating and they work really well. However, the elephant in the room here is cost (that’s also why cobalt is not even on the table). But there is a way to make black stain affordable: Using a jet-black engobe.

All these bars were fired to cone 6 (although they are numbered 5).
Top bar: L4768D, a white cone 10R porcelain with 10% umber (the result is too vitreous and colour has gone brown).
L4768E is a cone 10 red burning stoneware stained with 5% umber. The red fireclay in its recipe is the secret of it being sufficiently refractory to host the umber.
L4484D is MNP plus 6% Mason 6666 black stain. Normally more stain would be needed if it were a white burning porcelain.
P6729 and P7159 are both Plainsman Coffee clay, it is made using 10% burnt umber.

Cone 6 black clay bodies

Related Pictures

Absolutely jet-black cone 6 engobe on M340


A buff stoneware mug with black engobe

This is the L3954B engobe. 15% Mason 6600 black body stain has been added (instead of the normal 10% Zircopax for white). Of course, a cover glaze is needed for a functional surface, thickly applied engobes must have the same fired maturity as the body for good fit. Lots of information is available on using L3954B (including mixing and adjustment instructions). Engobes are tricky to use, follow the links below to learn more. L3954B is designed to work on regular Plainsman M340 (this piece), M390 and Coffee Clay (it is not a porcelain but has adjustable maturity to be fitted to them if needed). These bodies dry better than porcelains and are much less expensive, so coating them with an engobe to get a surface like this makes a lot of sense.

Black engobed M340 stoneware with GA6-B Alberta Slip glaze

Hand built. Cone 6 drop-and-hold PLC6DS firing. The engobe is the L3954B base recipe with added Mason 6600 black stain, it was applied at the leather hard stage inside and part way down the outside. The GA6-B glaze enhances the black under it. By Tony Hansen.

L3954J black engobe on a cone 10 whiteware body


Black cone 10R engobe

The body is Plainsman H570 (0.5-1% porosity). Notice the EBCT test bars in front (engobe compatibility). These sandwich the body and the engobe together in a thin strip, differences in fired shrinkage curl the bar during firing (toward the higher shrinker). The straighter the bars fire the better the fit. My regular engobe for use on our buff stoneware, L3954N (Plainsman H550, 2-3% porosity), has lower fired shrinkage than this (since that body is less vitreous). This one increases the shrinkage (with 5% more nepheline syenite, 5% less silica and 3% less ball clay). This employs 10% Mason 6600 stain to produce the jet-black fired product.

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