Left: A high-contrast photo of a cut across the cross section of an eight-month-old slug of Plainsman M370 pugged clay. Right: A cut of a just-produced material (which will exhibit the same pattern in eight more months). You can feel different stiffnesses as you drag your finger across this clay, these are a product of the aging process combined with the natural lamination that a pugmill produces. Clearly, the older material needs to be wedged before use in hand building or on the wheel.
The process of mixing a plastic clay by hand before forming it. Similar to kneading of bread dough, it is considered an essential step by most potters.
Laminations because of improper pugging of a clay body will cause separations and drying cracks in the ware.
Ceramic glazes and clay bodies can host micro organisms. They can be just a nuisance, a source of worry or they can render a product useless. What should you do?
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