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Alberta Slip GA6-A glaze slow-cooled goes matte

This is GA6-A Alberta Slip base glaze (80 Alberta Slip:20 Frit 3134) fired using the C6DHSC firing schedule (on Plainsman M390 iron red clay). If this is cooled rapidly or 1% tin oxide inhibitor is added, it fires to a glossy clear amber glass with no crystals. This base is needed to make GA6-C rutile blue, otherwise we recommend the GA6-B base (which uses frit 3195 instead), it has a lower thermal expansion and guarantees gloss regardless of cooling speed. If, on the other hand, you want to enhance this effect, just add a little more frit (to gloss it more) and more iron oxide (that should enable matting even at faster cooling speeds.

GA6-A sow cooled

Related Pictures

Tin oxide stops crystallization in GA6-A Alberta Slip base glaze


Both of these mugs were soaked 15 minutes at cone 6 (2200F), then cooled at 100F per hour to 2100F and soaked for 30 minutes and then cooled at 200F/hour to 1500F. This firing schedule was done to eliminate glaze defects like pinholes and blisters. Normally the GA6-A glaze crystallizes (devitrifies) heavily with this type of firing, but an addition of 1% tin oxide to the one on the left has prevented this behavior.

The same glaze fires very differently depending on kiln cooling rate


Both mugs use the same cone 6 oxidation high-iron (9%), high-boron, fluid melt glaze. Iron silicate crystals have completely invaded the surface of the one on the left, turning the gloss surface into a yellowy matte. Why? Multiple factors. This glaze does not contain enough iron to guarantee crystallization on cooling. When cooled quickly it fires the ultragloss near-black on the right. As cooling is slowed at some point the iron will begin to precipitate as small scattered golden crystals (sometimes called Teadust or Sparkles). As cooling slows further the number and size of these increases. Their maximum saturation is achieved on the discovery, usually by accident, of the likely narrow temperature range they form at (normally hundreds of degrees below the firing cone). Potters seek this type of glaze but industry avoids it because of difficulties with consistency.

GA6A Alberta Slip base using Frit 3124, 3249 and 3195 on dark body


The body is dark brown burning Plainsman M390 (cone 6). The amber colored glaze is 80% Alberta Slip (raw:calcine mix) with 20% of each frit. The white engobe, L3954B, on the inside of two of the mugs is L3954A (those mugs are glazed inside using transparent G2926B). The Alberta Slip amber gloss glaze produces an ultra-gloss surface of high quality on mugs 2 and 3 (Frit 3249 and 3195). On the outside we see it this glaze on the white slip until midway down, then on the bare red clay. The amber glaze on the first mug (with Frit 3124) has a pebbly surface. These are fired using a drop-and-soak firing schedule. Some caution is required with the 3249 version, it has low thermal expansion (that is good on bodies that normally craze glazes, but risks shivering on ones that do not).

Same glaze/body. One fired flawless, the other dimpled, pinholes. Why?


The difference is a slow-cool firing. Both mugs are Plainsman M340 and have the L3954B black engobe inside and partway down on the outside. Both were dip-glazed with the GA6-B amber transparent and fired to cone 6. The one on the right was fired using the PLC6DS drop-and-hold schedule. That eliminated any blisters, but some pinholes remained. The one on the left was fired using the C6DHSC slow-cool schedule. That differs in one way: It cools at 150F/hr from 2100F to 1400F (as opposed to a free-fall). It is amazing how much this improves the brilliance and surface quality (not fully indicated by this photo, the mug on the left is much better).

Same glaze, same kiln, same clay: The right one crystallized. Why?


Well, actually they are not exactly the same. This is 80% Alberta Slip and 20% frit. But the frit on the left is Ferro 3195 and on the right is 3134. By comparing the calculated chemistry for these two we can say that the likely reason for the difference is the Al2O3 content. Frit 3134 has almost none whereas 3195 has 12%. Al2O3 stiffens the glaze melt, that impedes crystal growth. And it stabilizes the melt against running during firing. Frit 3195 is thus much more "like a glaze" than is 3134, it is what Alberta Slip needs to melt as a transparent glass under normally cooling in the kiln.

Links

Firing Schedules Plainsman Cone 6 Slow Cool
350F/hr to 2100F, 108/hr to 2200, hold 10 minutes, fastdrop to 2100, hold 30 minutes, 150/hr to 1400
Glossary Crystallization
Ceramic glazes form crystals on cooling if the chemistry is right and the rate of cool is slow enough to permit molecular movement to the preferred orientation.

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