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Measuring slip viscosity using a paint-measuring device

A Ford Cup being using to measure the viscosity of a casting clip. These are available at paint supply stores. This is a #4, it holds 100ml and drains water in 10 seconds (it has a 4.25mm opening). This casting slip has a specific gravity of 1.79 and we target a 40-second drain. That being said, if you are not working in a factory, if will be sufficiently to eye-ball the viscosity as you gain experience. If you are in a high-production situation, the seconds-value that this test produces gives you something to write down in testing records, producing an audit-trail for quality control and problem solving later. One thing to note: A slurry can gel while it is draining, if this happens the value produced is not valid. First adjust the rheology so it maintains viscosity throughout the drain time.

Measuring ceramic slip viscosity using a Ford cup

Links

Glossary Viscosity
In ceramic slurries (especially casting slips, but also glazes) the degree of fluidity of the suspension is important to its performance.
Glossary Slip Casting
A method of forming ceramics where a deflocculated (low water content) slurry is poured into absorbent plaster molds, forming a layer against mold walls, then poured out.
Glossary Specific gravity
In ceramics, the specific gravity of casting slurries and glazes tells us their water-to-solids. Body slurries especially require tight control of this property for performance reasons.
Glossary Rheology
In ceramics, this term refers to the flow and gel properties of a glaze or body suspension (made from water and mineral powders, with possible additives, deflocculants, modifiers).
Glossary Deflocculation
The deflocculation process is the magic behind the ceramic casting process. It enables you to make a slurry of far lower water content and thus lower shrinkage.
Articles Low Budget Testing of the Raw and Fired Properties of a Glaze
There is more to glazes than their visual character, they have other physical properties like hardness, thermal expansion, leachability, chemistry and they exhibit many defects. Here are some simple tests.
Articles Understanding the Deflocculation Process in Slip Casting
Understanding the magic of deflocculation and how to measure specific gravity and viscosity, and how to interpret the results of these tests to adjust the slip, these are the key to controlling a casting process.

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