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Rheology

In ceramics, this term refers to the flow and gel properties of a glaze or body suspension (made from water and mineral powders, with possible additives, deflocculants, modifiers).

Details

Rheology refers to the array of characteristics that a ceramic slurry exhibits: its density, flow, thixotropy, permeability, viscosity, stability, etc. Technicians seek to understand and control the dynamics of the slurries they use (to maintain consistency and optimize them for the product and process at hand). Their task is complicated by variations in water consistency and quality, materials changes, temperature variations, growth of mold and mixing procedure inconsistencies. In a factory setting a casting slurry, for example, is typically maintained to perform well if its fluidity, one-minute thixotropy and density all fall within certain ranges.

For example, when it is desirable to have low water content in slurries, deflocculation is employed. Flocculants can be used for higher water concentration, sedimentation prevention or to create thixotropic characteristics. At time both are used, to both reduce water content and gel a slurry.

The Old Hickory clay website has some excellent papers on understanding rheology in production of ceramic ware.

A casting slip of 1.9 specific gravity. Should we use it?

A casting slip of 1.9 specific gravity. Should we use it?

A hydrometer is being used to check the specific gravity of a ceramic casting slip in a graduated cylinder. Common traditional clay-containing ceramic slips are usually maintained around 1.75-1.8. In this case the slurry was too heavy, almost 1.9. Yet it is very fluid, why is this? It has both too much clay and too much deflocculant. While it is possible to use such a slip, it will not drain as well and it will gel too quickly as it stands. It is better to settle for a lower specific gravity (where you can control the thixotropy and it is easier to use). It might have been better to simply fill a 100cc cylinder and weigh it to get the specific gravity (slurries that are very viscous do not permit hydrometers to float freely).

Measuring slip viscosity the easy way

Measuring slip viscosity the easy way

A Ford Cup being using to measure the viscosity of a casting clip. These are available at paint supply stores. It drains water in 10 seconds. This casting slip has a specific gravity of 1.79 and we target a 40-second drain. Maintenance of viscosity and specific gravity are vital to an efficient process in slip casting.

Slip of the proper specific gravity and viscosity is so much better

Slip of the proper specific gravity and viscosity is so much better

This deflocculated slurry of 1.79 specific gravity (only 28% water) has just been poured into a mold. The mold is dry, the wall thickness of the bowl will build quickly and the liquid level will sink only slightly. The mold can be drained in minutes (for a wall thickness of 3-4 mm). The clay is not too plastic (too fine particle sized) so it is permeable enough to enable efficient water migration to the plastic face. If the specific gravity of this slip was too low (too high a percentage of water) the liquid level would sink drastically during the time in the mold, take longer to build up a wall thickness and water-log the mold quickly. If the slip contained too much deflocculant it would cast slower, settle out, form a skiln and drain poorly. If it had too little deflocculant it would gel in the mold and be difficult to pour out.

Measuring glaze slurry specific gravity

Measuring glaze slurry specific gravity

This is the easiest way to measure the specific gravity of a glaze if it is not in a container deep enough to float a hydrometer (or if it is too viscous to enable free movement). Just counterbalance the empty graduated cylinder to zero (you can buy these at amazon.com), fill it to the 100cc mark and the scale reading divided by 100 is the specific gravity. Be careful on cheap plastic graduated cylinders like this, check them with water and mark the true 100cc mark if needed. You could actually use any container, just fill it with water and mark the level, then fill to the same level with slurry and divide the slurry weight by water weight.

Adding water actually made this white engobe run less? How?

Adding water actually made this white engobe run less? How?

The white slip (applied to a leather hard cup) on the left is dripping downward from the rim (even though it was held upside down for a couple of minutes!). Yet that slurry was very viscous with a 1.48 specific gravity. Why? Because it was not thixotropic. The fix? I watered it down to 1.46 (making it runny) and added pinches of powdered epsom salts (while mixing vigorously) until it thickened enough to stop motion in about 1-2 seconds on mixer shut-off. But that stop-motion is followed by a bounce-back. That is the thixotropy. It is easy overdo the epsom salts (gelling it too much), I add a drop or two of Darvan to rethin it if needed. When the engobe is right it gels after about 10 seconds of sitting, so I can stir it, dip and extract the mug, shake to drain it and then it gels and holds in place. Keep in mind, this is a pottery project. In industry they deflocculate engobes to reduce water content. But a deflocculated slurry can still be gelled (if it is runny).

Clay, feldspar, wollastonite, silica and frits are insoluble. Right?

Clay, feldspar, wollastonite, silica and frits are insoluble. Right?

Wrong! That is what the glaze was made of that was in this bucket. The scum on the inside is so hard that it is extremely difficult to remove, even using a scraper or a scrubber. Even lime-a-way does not remove it all. This is an example of how water-soluble materials can be. When this glaze settles out the water on top is brown (like this scum) yet all the material powders are white! So it is not surprising that glaze viscosity changes over time and things dissolve and impact rheology.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics - book

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics - book

Many aspects of ceramic production relate to the control of fluids (mostly suspensions). This is also true of material production. If you want to solve problems and optimize your process this is invaluable knowledge. This book is available at amazon.com.

Links

Glossary Thixotropy
Thixotropy is a property of ceramic slurries. Thixotropic suspensions flow when you want them to and then gel after sitting for a few moments. This phenomenon is helpful in getting even, drip free coverage.
Glossary Bisque, bisquit firing
Potters and some manufacturers fire ceramic ware twice, once to prepare it for glazing (call bisquit firing) and the second time to melt the glaze onto it.
Glossary Specific gravity
In ceramics, the specific gravity of casting slurries and glazes tells us their water-to-solids. Body slurries especially require tight control of this property for performance reasons.
Glossary Once fire glazing
Refers to the practice of firing ceramics in one firing (rather than two) to produce a fully glazed product. This practice requires more technical expertise.
Glossary Deflocculation
The deflocculation process is the magic behind the ceramic casting process. It enables you to make a slurry of far lower water content and thus lower shrinkage.
Glossary Flocculation
The flocculation process enables technicians in ceramics to create an engobe or glaze slurry that gels and goes on to the ware in a thick yet even layer that does not drip.
Glossary Slip Casting
A method of forming ceramics where a deflocculated (low water content) slurry is poured into absorbent plaster molds, forming a layer against mold walls, then poured out.
Glossary Water in Ceramics
Water is the most important ceramic material, it is present every body, glaze or engobe and either the enabler or a participant in almost every ceramic process and phenomena.
Materials Vinegar
Materials Garamite
Materials Claytone
URLs http://www.oldhickoryclay.com
Old Hickory website
URLs http://www.rheology.org
Society of Rheology Website
URLs http://www.malvern.co.uk/labeng/products/iwtm/rheological_properties.htm
Malvern Instruments Rheology page
Projects Minerals
Projects Properties
Articles Where Do I Start?
Break your addiction to online recipes that don't work. Get control. Learn why glazes fire as they do. Why each material is used. Some chemistry. How to create perfect dipping and drying properties. Be empowered. Adjust recipes with issues rather than sta

By Tony Hansen


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