1-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | Frits | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
1048 Frit | Barium Frits | Bayer Frit J-239-P | Blyth Frit 3104 | Boron Frits | BPS Calcium Borate Frit | BPS High Alkaline Frit | BPS Low Expansion Frit | BPS Standard Borax Frit | Ceradel Frit 3110 | Ceradel Frit 3134 | Ceradel Frit 3195 | Ceradel Frit C 1249 | Ceradel Frit C 1250 | Ceradel Frit C 1251 | Ceradel Frit C 1252 | Ceradel Frit C 1253 | Ceradel Frit C 1254 | Ceradel Frit C 1255 | Ceradel Frit C 1256 | Chrysanthos Frit FR001 | Chrysanthos Frit FR002N | Chrysanthos Frit FR003 | Chrysanthos Frit FR004 | Chrysanthos Frit FR005 | Chrysanthos Frit FR006 | Colorobbia Frit 250 | Colorobbia Frit 335 | Colorobia Frit F4 | Colorobia Frit F5 | Crecer Frit 804 | Degussa Frit 15098 | Degussa Frit 90001 | Degussa Frit 90016 | Degussa Frit 90062 | Degussa Frit 90142 | Degussa Frit 90155 | Degussa Frit 90158 | Degussa Frit 90167 | Degussa Frit 90176 | Degussa Frit 90187 | Degussa Frit 90191 | Degussa Frit 90198 | Degussa Frit 90205 | Degussa Frit 90208 | Degussa Frit 90208M | Degussa Frit 90226 | Degussa Frit 90242 | Degussa Frit 90321 | Degussa Frit 90328 | Degussa Frit 90352 | Degussa Frit 90368 | Degussa Frit 90378 | Degussa Frit 90420 | Douteux Frit LB75 | Esmalglass Frit FM 1403/G | Esmalglass Frit FM 86 | Esmalglass Frit FO 940/1 | Esmalglass Frit FO 963 | Esmalglass Frit FO-961/P | Esmalglass Frit FT 821/6 | Esmalglass Frit FT 8547 | Esmalglass Frit FT2803 | Ferro Frit 1012 | Ferro Frit 1057 | Ferro Frit 1077 | Ferro Frit 1081 | Ferro Frit 1085 | Ferro Frit 114 | Ferro Frit 1212 | Ferro Frit 210R | Ferro Frit 221-201 | Ferro Frit 2244 | Ferro Frit 271D | Ferro Frit 2954 | Ferro Frit 3043 | Ferro Frit 3110 | Ferro Frit 3124 | Ferro Frit 3127 | Ferro Frit 3134 | Ferro Frit 3185 | Ferro Frit 3191 | Ferro Frit 3193 | Ferro Frit 3195 | Ferro Frit 3210 | Ferro Frit 3211 | Ferro Frit 3221 | Ferro Frit 3223 | Ferro Frit 3224 | Ferro Frit 3225 | Ferro Frit 3226 | Ferro Frit 3227 | Ferro Frit 3230 | Ferro Frit 3234 | Ferro Frit 3240 | Ferro Frit 3247 | Ferro Frit 3248 | Ferro Frit 3249 | Ferro Frit 3257 | Ferro Frit 3264 | Ferro Frit 3269 | Ferro Frit 3270 | Ferro Frit 3271 | Ferro Frit 3275 | Ferro Frit 3276 | Ferro Frit 3278 | Ferro Frit 3280 | Ferro Frit 3281 | Ferro Frit 3284 | Ferro Frit 3286 | Ferro Frit 3288 | Ferro Frit 3289 | Ferro Frit 3291 | Ferro Frit 3292 | Ferro Frit 3293 | Ferro Frit 3299 | Ferro Frit 3300 | Ferro Frit 3302-D | Ferro Frit 3304 | Ferro Frit 3327 | Ferro Frit 3336 | Ferro Frit 3337 | Ferro Frit 3377 | Ferro Frit 3379 | Ferro Frit 3386 | Ferro Frit 3396 | Ferro Frit 3403 | Ferro Frit 3417 | Ferro Frit 3419 | Ferro Frit 3435 | Ferro Frit 3438 | Ferro Frit 3441 | Ferro Frit 3442 | Ferro Frit 3446 | Ferro Frit 3447 | Ferro Frit 3451 | Ferro Frit 3453 | Ferro Frit 3454 | Ferro Frit 3455 | Ferro Frit 3456 | Ferro Frit 3457 | Ferro Frit 3458 | Ferro Frit 3462 | Ferro Frit 3463 | Ferro Frit 3464 | Ferro Frit 3465 | Ferro Frit 3466 | Ferro Frit 3467 | Ferro Frit 3470 | Ferro Frit 3471 | Ferro Frit 3476 | Ferro Frit 3480 | Ferro Frit 3481 | Ferro Frit 3482 | Ferro Frit 3485 | Ferro Frit 3487 | Ferro Frit 3489 | Ferro Frit 349 | Ferro Frit 3490 | Ferro Frit 3493 | Ferro Frit 3494 | Ferro Frit 3496 | Ferro Frit 3497 | Ferro Frit 3498 | Ferro Frit 3499 | Ferro Frit 3509 | Ferro Frit 3516 | Ferro Frit 3519 | Ferro Frit 3528 | Ferro Frit 3532 | Ferro Frit 3536 | Ferro Frit 3541 | Ferro Frit 3545 | Ferro Frit 3548 | Ferro Frit 3552 | Ferro Frit 3560 | Ferro Frit 3563 | Ferro Frit 3565 | Ferro Frit 3576 | Ferro Frit 3600 | Ferro Frit 3602 | Ferro Frit 3620 | Ferro Frit 3626 | Ferro Frit 3813 | Ferro Frit 3814 | Ferro Frit 3819 | Ferro Frit 3820 | Ferro Frit 3824 | Ferro Frit 3831 | Ferro Frit 3833 | Ferro Frit 3834 | Ferro Frit 3838 | Ferro Frit 3846 | Ferro Frit 3851 | Ferro Frit 3878 | Ferro Frit 3898 | Ferro Frit 4049 | Ferro Frit 4064 | Ferro Frit 4101 | Ferro Frit 4103 | Ferro Frit 4108 | Ferro Frit 4110 | Ferro Frit 4112 | Ferro Frit 4113 | Ferro Frit 4124 | Ferro Frit 4125 | Ferro Frit 4144 | Ferro Frit 4171 | Ferro Frit 4193 | Ferro Frit 4194 | Ferro Frit 4346 | Ferro Frit 4364 | Ferro Frit 4396 | Ferro Frit 4616 | Ferro Frit 4712 | Ferro Frit 530 | Ferro Frit 5301 | Ferro Frit 5325P | Ferro Frit 9102 | Ferro Frit 9146 | Ferro Frit 938 | Ferro Frit CC-233 | Ferro Frit CC-250 | Ferro Frit CC-250-2 | Ferro Frit CC-251 | Ferro Frit CC-252 | Ferro Frit CC-253 | Ferro Frit CC-254 | Ferro Frit CC-257 | Ferro Frit CC-257-2 | Ferro Frit CC-261 | Ferro Frit CC-262 | Ferro Frit CC-263 | Ferro Frit CC-263-2 | Ferro Frit CC-265 | Ferro Frit CC-266 | Ferro Frit CC-270 | Ferro Frit CC-272 | Ferro Frit CC-274 | Ferro Frit CC-277 | Ferro Frit CC-279-3 (approx) | Ferro Frit CC-411 | Ferro Frit CC-657 | Ferro Frit CE VTR 29 | Ferro Frit CL-408 | Ferro Frit CM-887 | Ferro Frit CM-895 | Ferro Frit CM-942 | Ferro Frit CM-943 | Ferro Frit CM-944 | Ferro Frit CZ-102 | Ferro Frit CZ-105 | Ferro Frit CZ-106 | Ferro Frit DA4193 | Ferro Frit FB-145-G | Ferro Frit FB-149B | Ferro Frit FB-175-L | Ferro Frit FB-179-G | Ferro Frit FB-208-L | Ferro Frit FB-250-L | Ferro Frit FB-258-A | Ferro Frit FB-276-P | Ferro Frit FB-276-P-2 (approx) | Ferro Frit FB-280-L | Ferro Frit FB-282-B | Ferro Frit FB-282-O | Ferro Frit FB-284-M | Ferro Frit FB-285-D | Ferro Frit FB-286-D | Ferro Frit FB-288-A | Ferro Frit FB-288-D | Ferro Frit KGF4106 | Ferro Frit KGF4131 | Ferro Frit R-1 | Ferro Frit R-210M | Ferro Frit Z-119 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C001 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C002 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C003 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C004 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C005 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C006 | Ferro Richoux Frit 21 C007 | Frit | Frit 1047 | Frit 1078 | Frit 1201 | Frit 1202 | Frit 1203 | Frit 1209 | Frit 1210 | Frit 1213 | Frit 1214 | Frit 1451 | Frit 1510 | Frit 1817 | Frit 1818 | Frit 1843 | Frit 268-D | Frit 282-b | Frit 288-B | Frit 2963 | Frit 3069P | Frit 3221 | Frit 33.170 | Frit 34.030 | Frit 34.410 | Frit 35.024 | Frit 35.075 | Frit 35.108 | Frit 35.200 | Frit 35.320 | Frit 35.528 | Frit 35.608 | Frit 35.680 | Frit 35.690 | Frit 3647 | Frit 37.062 | Frit 37.528 | Frit 37.960 | Frit 439 | Frit 45301 | Frit 5151 | Frit 6004 | Frit A 1316 | Frit A 1561 | Frit A 2010 | Frit A 2120 | Frit A 2912 | Frit A 3021 | Frit A 3032 | Frit A 3069 | Frit A 3128 | Frit A 3129 | Frit A 3158 | Frit A 3323 | Frit A 3334 | Frit A 3360 | Frit A 3363 | Frit A 3364 | Frit A 3367 | Frit A 3368 | Frit A 3382 | Frit A 3383 | Frit A 4015 | Frit A 4018 | Frit A 4040 | Frit A 4043 | Frit A 62 | Frit A 8962 | Frit A3249/p | Frit B300 | Frit B325 | Frit FA-233-2 (approx) | Frit FNO 143 | Frit FR-170A | Frit Fsb508 | Frit Fsb510/866 | Frit Fsb518/F40 | Frit Fsb571 | Frit Fsb656 | Frit Fsb697 | Frit Fsb757 094 | Frit G-23 | Frit G-24 | Frit HP33 | Frit J | Frit LA-300 | Frit LP891 | Frit M-130 | Frit MOK 1 | Frit NR 2 | Frit PC-4C-74 | Frit PR-1000 | Frit RCG 2430 | Frit V-3 | Frit VO 6079 | Frit VO 6086 | Frit VO 6104 | Frit VO 6134 | Frit VO 6147 | Frit VO 6160 | Frit VO 6170 | Frit VO 6200 | Frit VO 6205 | Frit VO 6253 | Frit VO 6255 | Frit VO 6257 | Frit VO 6259 | Frit VO 6270 | Frit Welte FR 2015 | Frit Welte FR 2020 | Frit Welte FR 2025 | Frit XF-150 | Fritte M1 | Fritte M1511 | Fritte M2 | Fritte M3 | Fritte M74 | Fusion Frit 294 | Fusion Frit 435 | Fusion Frit 5325 | Fusion Frit 587 | Fusion Frit 605 | Fusion Frit F-02 | Fusion Frit F-05 | Fusion Frit F-10 | Fusion Frit F-102 | Fusion Frit F-105 | Fusion Frit F-12 | Fusion Frit F-125 | Fusion Frit F-13 | Fusion Frit F-134 | Fusion Frit F-145 | Fusion Frit F-15 | Fusion Frit F-175 | Fusion Frit F-18 | Fusion Frit F-19 | Fusion Frit F-2 | Fusion Frit F-215 | Fusion Frit F-225 | Fusion Frit F-237 | Fusion Frit F-245 | Fusion Frit F-26 | Fusion Frit F-280 | Fusion Frit F-300 | Fusion Frit F-304 | Fusion Frit F-309 | Fusion Frit F-310 | Fusion Frit F-326 | Fusion Frit F-34 | Fusion Frit F-359 | Fusion Frit F-367 | Fusion Frit F-38 | Fusion Frit F-380 | Fusion Frit F-390 | Fusion Frit F-395 | Fusion Frit F-403 | Fusion Frit F-413 | Fusion Frit F-43 | Fusion Frit F-49 | Fusion Frit F-490C | Fusion Frit F-492 | Fusion Frit F-493 | Fusion Frit F-495 | Fusion Frit F-496 | Fusion Frit F-498 | Fusion Frit F-499 | Fusion Frit F-5 | Fusion Frit F-502 | Fusion Frit F-506 | Fusion Frit F-520B | Fusion Frit F-524 | Fusion Frit F-537 | Fusion Frit F-541 | Fusion Frit F-561 | Fusion Frit F-562 | Fusion Frit F-563 | Fusion Frit F-567 | Fusion Frit F-577 | Fusion Frit F-578 | Fusion Frit F-579 | Fusion Frit F-581 | Fusion Frit F-582 | Fusion Frit F-585 | Fusion Frit F-586 | Fusion Frit F-588 | Fusion Frit F-592 | Fusion Frit F-60 | Fusion Frit F-611 | Fusion Frit F-65 | Fusion Frit F-69 | Fusion Frit F-71 | Fusion Frit F-74 | Fusion Frit F-75 | Fusion Frit F-76 | Fusion Frit F-77 | Fusion Frit F-79 | Fusion Frit F-95 | Fusion Frit F644 | Fusion Frit FL-1 | Fusion Frit FL-17 | Fusion Frit FL-28 | Fusion Frit FL-308 | Fusion Frit FL-31 | Fusion Frit FL-39 | Fusion Frit FL-4 | Fusion Frit FL-42 | Fusion Frit FL-43 | Fusion Frit FL-46 | Fusion Frit FL-51 | Fusion Frit FL-55 | Fusion Frit FL-99 | Fusion Frit FZ-10 | Fusion Frit FZ-14 | Fusion Frit FZ-16 | Fusion Frit FZ-164 | Fusion Frit FZ-22 | Fusion Frit FZ-23 | Fusion Frit FZ-24 | Fusion Frit FZ-241 | Fusion Frit FZ-25 | Fusion Frit FZ-276 | Fusion Frit FZ-284 | Fusion Frit FZ-30 | Fusion Frit FZ-35 | Fusion Frit FZ-376 | Fusion Frit FZ-376A | Fusion Frit FZ-390 | Fusion Frit FZ-430 | Fusion Frit FZ-45 | Fusion Frit FZ-556 | Fusion Frit FZ-557 | Fusion Frit FZ-565 | Fusion Frit FZ-576 | Fusion Frit FZ-580 | Fusion Frit FZ-583 | Fusion Frit FZ-589 | Fusion Frit FZ-6 | Fusion Frit FZ-647 | Fusion Frit FZ-81 | Fusion Frit FZ-84 | Fusion Frit FZ-9 | Fusion Frit FZ-915 | General Frit 400F | General Frit GF-100 | General Frit GF-103 | General Frit GF-104 | General Frit GF-106 | General Frit GF-108 | General Frit GF-109 | General Frit GF-110 | General Frit GF-111 | General Frit GF-112 | General Frit GF-113 | General Frit GF-114 | General Frit GF-115 | General Frit GF-118 | General Frit GF-125 | General Frit GF-126 | General Frit GF-127 | General Frit GF-129 | General Frit GF-134 | General Frit GF-136 | General Frit GF-14 | General Frit GF-140 | General Frit GF-141 | General Frit GF-143 | General Frit GF-144 | General Frit GF-146 | General Frit GF-15 | General Frit GF-150 | General Frit GF-154 | General Frit GF-156 | General Frit GF-160 | General Frit GF-18 | General Frit GF-20 | General Frit GF-25 | General Frit GF-27 | General Frit GF-42 | General Frit GF-509 | General Frit GF-8 | General Frit GF-9 | General Frit L-294-J | Glostex Frit 32 | Glostex Frit H-2 | H19 Frit | Heraeus Schauer Frit K 1325 | Heraeus Schauer Frit K 1562 | Heraeus Schauer Frit K 3066 | Hommel Frit 1005 | Hommel Frit 1006 | Hommel Frit 1007 | Hommel Frit 1020 | Hommel Frit 1021 | Hommel Frit 1030 | Hommel Frit 11 | Hommel Frit 13 | Hommel Frit 14 | Hommel Frit 154 | Hommel Frit 160 | Hommel Frit 166 | Hommel Frit 18 | Hommel Frit 183 | Hommel Frit 2106 | Hommel Frit 22 | Hommel Frit 220 | Hommel Frit 24 | Hommel Frit 240 | Hommel Frit 242 | Hommel Frit 25 | Hommel Frit 259 | Hommel Frit 266 | Hommel Frit 267 | Hommel Frit 27 | Hommel Frit 276 | Hommel Frit 28 | Hommel Frit 285 | Hommel Frit 28F198 | Hommel Frit 290 | Hommel Frit 2GF11C | Hommel Frit 2GF128B | Hommel Frit 2GF145C | Hommel Frit 2GF176D | Hommel Frit 2GF188 | Hommel Frit 2GF241A | Hommel Frit 2GF27D | Hommel Frit 2GF37C | Hommel Frit 2GF56A | Hommel Frit 2GF56C | Hommel Frit 2GF64A | Hommel Frit 2GF65E | Hommel Frit 2GF6K | Hommel Frit 316 | Hommel Frit 33 | Hommel Frit 334 | Hommel Frit 344 | Hommel Frit 361 | Hommel Frit 367 | Hommel Frit 373 | Hommel Frit 378 | Hommel Frit 378A | Hommel Frit 381 | Hommel Frit 383 | Hommel Frit 385 | Hommel Frit 389 | Hommel Frit 399 | Hommel Frit 3GF132E | Hommel Frit 3GF13C | Hommel Frit 3GF195B | Hommel Frit 3GF222A | Hommel Frit 3GF238B | Hommel Frit 3GF267C | Hommel Frit 3GF272B | Hommel Frit 3GF272C | Hommel Frit 3GF276C | Hommel Frit 3GF61A | Hommel Frit 3GF84C | Hommel Frit 400 | Hommel Frit 402 | Hommel Frit 403 | Hommel Frit 419 | Hommel Frit 432 | Hommel Frit 435 | Hommel Frit 437 | Hommel Frit 440 | Hommel Frit 441 | Hommel Frit 442 | Hommel Frit 445 | Hommel Frit 446 | Hommel Frit 447 | Hommel Frit 448 | Hommel Frit 450 | Hommel Frit 465 | Hommel Frit 468 | Hommel Frit 472 | Hommel Frit 474 | Hommel Frit 477 | Hommel Frit 482 | Hommel Frit 486 | Hommel Frit 487 | Hommel Frit 488 | Hommel Frit 49 | Hommel Frit 490 | Hommel Frit 493 | Hommel Frit 494 | Hommel Frit 497 | Hommel Frit 498 | Hommel Frit 4GF113A | Hommel Frit 4GF135E | Hommel Frit 4GF137A | Hommel Frit 4GF137C | Hommel Frit 4GF148E | Hommel Frit 4GF151B | Hommel Frit 4GF152E | Hommel Frit 4GF153A | Hommel Frit 4GF154D | Hommel Frit 4GF156B | Hommel Frit 4GF164E | Hommel Frit 4GF171B | Hommel Frit 4GF173D | Hommel Frit 4GF175B | Hommel Frit 4GF40E | Hommel Frit 4GF45C | Hommel Frit 4GF48B | Hommel Frit 4GF52A | Hommel Frit 4GF53C | Hommel Frit 4GF56E | Hommel Frit 4GF57B | Hommel Frit 4GF63A | Hommel Frit 4GF63D | Hommel Frit 4GF65B | Hommel Frit 4GF71D | Hommel Frit 4GF79D | Hommel Frit 4GF93E | Hommel Frit 4GF95D | Hommel Frit 5 | Hommel Frit 509 | Hommel Frit 520 | Hommel Frit 529 | Hommel Frit 536 | Hommel Frit 542 | Hommel Frit 550 | Hommel Frit 555 | Hommel Frit 566 | Hommel Frit 571 | Hommel Frit 573 | Hommel Frit 574 | Hommel Frit 576 | Hommel Frit 579 | Hommel Frit 581 | Hommel Frit 584 | Hommel Frit 595 | Hommel Frit 61 | Hommel Frit 630 | Hommel Frit 634 | Hommel Frit 642 | Hommel Frit 64B | Hommel Frit 69 | Hommel Frit 698 | Hommel Frit 71 | Hommel Frit 71 | Hommel Frit 840 | Hommel Frit 90 | Hommel Frit G-26 | Hommel Frit K-3 | Hommel Frit RW238E | Hommel Frit T-206 | Hommel Frit T-88 | James Kent Frit 2917X0 | James Kent Frit D9991 | James Kent Frit DR1327 | James Kent Frit DR1328 | James Kent Frit F12 | James Kent Frit N4129 | James Kent Frit SN121 | James Kent Frit SN70 | James Kent Frit SN72 | James Kent Frit SN97 | Johnson Matthey Frit 169 | Johnson Matthey Frit 623 | Keramikos Aardalkaliboor Fritte | Keramikos Bariumzink Fritte | Keramikos Fritte 10.01 | Keramikos Fritte 10.05 | Keramikos Fritte 14.51 | Keramikos Fritte 15.10 | Keramikos Fritte 15.11 | Keramikos Fritte 31.10 | Keramikos Fritte 32.21 | Keramikos Fritte 32.22 | Keramikos Fritte M1 | Keramikos Fritte V15098 | Lead Bisilicate Frit | Lead Monosilicate Frit | Lead Sesquisilicate Frit | Matrix Frit B40-C | Matrix Frit B70-A | Matthey Calcium Borate Frit | Matthey Frit 20126 | Matthey Frit 20306G | Matthey Frit 21065g | Matthey Frit 3701F | Mondre and Manz Frit 1233 | Mondre and Manz Frit 4067 | Mondre and Manz Frit M9358 | Mondre and Manz Frit V15098 | Moulin Fritte M1233 | Moulin Fritte M1511 | Moulin Fritte M44 | Moulin Fritte M460 | Moulin Fritte M70 | Moulin Fritte M72 | Moulin Fritte M759 | Moulin Fritte M85 | Moulin Fritte M864 | Moulin Fritte M9152 | Moulin Fritte M95 | P29 Frit | Pemco Frit 3185 | Pemco Frit 3191 | Pemco Frit 3211 | Pemco Frit 3V128 | Pemco Frit J-22 | Pemco Frit J-224 | Pemco Frit J-239 | Pemco Frit J-241 | Pemco Frit J-344 | Pemco Frit J-394 | Pemco Frit J-43 | Pemco Frit P-1000 | Pemco Frit P-1084 | Pemco Frit P-1090 | Pemco Frit P-1154 | Pemco Frit P-1225 | Pemco Frit P-1409 | Pemco Frit P-1413 | Pemco Frit P-1492 | Pemco Frit P-1679 | Pemco Frit P-1701 | Pemco Frit P-1733 | Pemco Frit P-1734 | Pemco Frit P-1836 | Pemco Frit P-1853 | Pemco Frit P-1855 | Pemco Frit P-1941 | Pemco Frit P-1A43 | Pemco Frit P-1A44 | Pemco Frit P-1F07 | Pemco Frit P-1J81 | Pemco Frit P-1N72 | Pemco Frit P-1R41 | Pemco Frit P-1R63 | Pemco Frit P-1T27 | Pemco Frit P-1V04 | Pemco Frit P-1V31 | Pemco Frit P-1X24 | Pemco Frit P-2201 | Pemco Frit P-238 | Pemco Frit P-239 | Pemco Frit P-25 | Pemco Frit P-278 | Pemco Frit P-283 | Pemco Frit P-2C05 | Pemco Frit P-2C59 | Pemco Frit P-2D27 | Pemco Frit P-2D50 | Pemco Frit P-2D71 | Pemco Frit P-2G63 | Pemco Frit P-2J57 | Pemco Frit P-2N87 | Pemco Frit P-2P36 | Pemco Frit P-2V25 | Pemco Frit P-311 | Pemco Frit P-318 | Pemco Frit P-349 | Pemco Frit P-3E12 | Pemco Frit P-3K51 | Pemco Frit P-3T355 | Pemco Frit P-3T928 | Pemco Frit P-3V126 | Pemco Frit P-404 | Pemco Frit P-4D79 | Pemco Frit P-4K05 | Pemco Frit P-4K47 | Pemco Frit P-4N57 | Pemco Frit P-54 | Pemco Frit P-586 | Pemco Frit P-609 | Pemco Frit P-626 | Pemco Frit P-64 | Pemco Frit P-658 | Pemco Frit P-67 | Pemco Frit P-688 | Pemco Frit P-757 | Pemco Frit P-760 | Pemco Frit P-786 | Pemco Frit P-802 | Pemco Frit P-827 | Pemco Frit P-83 | Pemco Frit P-830 | Pemco Frit P-835 | Pemco Frit P-878 | Pemco Frit P-926 | Pemco Frit P-930 | Pemco Frit P-941 | Pemco Frit P-991 | Pemco Frit Pb-1038 | Pemco Frit Pb-1041 | Pemco Frit Pb-106 | Pemco Frit Pb-1114 | Pemco Frit Pb-113 | Pemco Frit Pb-1151 | Pemco Frit Pb-1241 | Pemco Frit Pb-1279 | Pemco Frit Pb-1307 | Pemco Frit Pb-1325 | Pemco Frit Pb-1421 | Pemco Frit Pb-1492 | Pemco Frit Pb-1931 | Pemco Frit Pb-1951 | Pemco Frit Pb-197 | Pemco Frit Pb-1B20 | Pemco Frit Pb-1K-75 | Pemco Frit Pb-1K75 | Pemco Frit Pb-1M90 | Pemco Frit Pb-1N84 | Pemco Frit Pb-1N86 | Pemco Frit Pb-1R-43 | Pemco Frit Pb-1R40 | Pemco Frit Pb-1R99 | Pemco Frit PB-1V48 | Pemco Frit Pb-1X22 | Pemco Frit Pb-2C52 | Pemco Frit Pb-2F-35 | Pemco Frit Pb-2F35 | Pemco Frit Pb-2G12 | Pemco Frit Pb-2G30 | Pemco Frit Pb-2V93 | Pemco Frit Pb-316 | Pemco Frit Pb-349 | Pemco Frit Pb-40 | Pemco Frit Pb-41 | Pemco Frit Pb-461 | Pemco Frit Pb-545 | Pemco Frit Pb-589 | Pemco Frit Pb-63 | Pemco Frit Pb-674 | Pemco Frit Pb-700 | Pemco Frit Pb-704 | Pemco Frit Pb-71 | Pemco Frit Pb-716 | Pemco Frit Pb-723 | Pemco Frit Pb-740 | Pemco Frit Pb-742 | Pemco Frit Pb-801 | Pemco Frit Pb-83 | Pemco Frit Pb-906 | Pemco Frit Pb-943 | Pemco Frit Pb-967 | Pemco Frit PC-4X63 | Podmore Frit P2250 | Potclays Frit 2261 | Potclays Frit 2262 | Potclays Frit 2263 | Potclays Frit 2265 | Potclays Frit 2266 | Potclays Frit 2268 | Potclays Frit 2269 | Potclays Frit 2270 | Potclays Frit 2272 | Potclays Frit 2273 | Potclays Frit 2275 | Potclays Frit 2279 | Potclays Frit 2281 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2950 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2951 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2952 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2953 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2954 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2955 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2957 | Potterycrafts Frit P2958 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2959 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2960 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2961 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2962 | PotteryCrafts Frit P2963 | PotteryCrafts Frit P3110 | PotteryCrafts Frit P3124 | PotteryCrafts Frit P3134 | PotteryCrafts Frit P3195 | R76 Frit | Roudnice Frit 02291 | Solargil Frit FR1 | Solargil Frit FR10 | Solargil Frit FR11 | Solargil Frit FR2 | Solargil Frit FR3 | Solargil Frit FR4 | Solargil Frit FR5 | Solargil Frit FR6 | Solargil Frit FR7 | Solargil Frit FR8 | Solargil Frit FR9 | Torrecid Frit 31056 | Torrecid Frit MBK00007 | Torrecid Frit MBK00020

Materials

The study of ceramic materials is at the center of all ceramic technology. While knowing the chemistry of materials gives you much control of fired the properties of glazes, knowing the physical and fired properties of materials enables control of both fired and unfired properties of bodies (and of course of the physical and working properties of glaze slurries). In education students study theoretical materials, in industry we work directly with real-world materials, we can see them and touch them. These materials normally come in bags, they are powders and we understand their properties from this view (not from the rocks they once were in a quarry). They have plasticities, melting temperatures, particle size distributions, vitrification histories, solubility or solubles contents, impurities, consistency issues, rheological properties, bulk densities, particle surface areas, costs, etc.

Materials science needs to be put into context with all the levels of assessment: oxide, mineral, material, recipe and process. For example, consider the problem of ware cracking during drying, a body issue (not likely related to chemistry). The problem could be as simple as ware being dried unevenly, a process level problem. If the cracking is occurring because the body has been formulated with too much ball clay to make it practical to dry, that is a recipe level issue. If the cracking is occurring because one material has changed or been substituted, perhaps to a much smaller particle size alternative, that is a material level issue. If the cause of the problem is difficult to asses, then the mineralogy of the ingredient materials and their interactions may need to be studied and understood better to solve the problem.

In many cases the causes of a problem have roots on multiple levels. Amazingly, this affords the opportunity to link apparently separate problems occurring on multiple levels and solve them all at once. Consider the issue of a glaze slurry that is settling quickly, powdering after drying and failing to adhere well to ware, these are happening because of lack of clay content. This problem is probably directly related to the fact that the glaze is also running off ware during firing (likely due to lack of Al2O3 and SiO2 in the glaze). Adding kaolin (which supplies both) will help suspend and harden the glaze and it will help stabilize it during firing, solving all the problems. In addition the glaze will also be more durable and less soluble.

In this materials area of the database we avoid discussing too much about chemistry, this is done in the oxides area. For example, on the material level we see kaolin as clay powder that contributes plasticity to a body and suspension properties to a glaze (while of course contributing Al2O3 and SiO2 to the chemistry of the glaze and a mullite building source to the body). On the mineral level it is kaolinite, its properties compare to other clays in relation to its particle size and shape, surface chemistry on the particles, etc. On the chemistry level it is no longer kaolin, it is Al2O3 and SiO2, therefore studying its effects on glazes involves studying these two oxides. However there a limitations to this 'materials as chemistry sources' view, different materials of the same chemistry do not release their oxides into a melt with the same willingness. These differences can be answered on the mineral level.

The concept of distinguishing between generic materials and name-brand materials enables maintaining general information in fewer places. For example, all generic information about kaolin can be found in the generic kaolin record. Other name-brand kaolins are linked to the generic kaolin as their parent and only information specific or unique to them is recorded there. Generic kaolin is, in turn, linked to the mineral kaolinite.

If you have studied or compared data sheets over a period of time then you know how many errors they can have, how unclear they can be, how non-applicable or non-practical their data is for ceramic applications and how drastically numbers can change as companies update them. This underscores the importance of being able to test these materials for yourself to know the behaviour for specific properties that relate to your application.

Links

Articles How to Find and Test Your Own Native Clays
Some of the key tests needed to really understand what a clay is and what it can be used for can be done with inexpensive equipment and simple procedures. These practical tests can give you a better picture than a data sheet full of numbers.
Articles Particle Size Distribution of Ceramic Powders
Understanding the theory behind sieve selection, how to properly sample a powder and how to carry out a particle size distribution test can give you valuable information about a material.
Articles Chemistry vs. Matrix Blending to Create Glazes from Native Materials
Is it better to do trial and error line and matrix blending of materials to formulate your glazes or is it better to use glaze chemistry?
Glossary Ceramic Material
Ceramic materials are employed in the ceramic industry to make glazes, bodies, engobes and refractories. We study them at the mineral, chemical and physical levels.
Glossary Theoretical Material
In glaze chemistry, theoretical materials are used to represent what a material would be if it was uncontaminated and perfectly crystallized
Glossary Physical Testing
In ceramics, glazes and bodies have a chemistry, a mineralogy and a physical presence. All of these need to be understood to adjust and fix issues.
Materials Kaolin
Media How to Add Materials to the Desktop Insight MDT
Media Desktop Insight 4 - Add a Native Material to MDT, Build a Glaze
Hazards Overview of Material Safety by Gavin Stairs

Lab testing a clay for its physical properties

SHAB test bars, an LDW tester for water content and a DFAC test disk about to be put into a drier. The SHAB (shrinkage-absorption) bars shrink during drying and firing, the length is measured at each stage. The LDW sample is weighed wet, dry and fired. The can prevents the inner portion of the DFAC disk from drying and this sets up stresses that cause it to crack. The nature of the cracking pattern and its magnitude are recorded as a Drying Factor. The numbers from all of these measurements are recorded in my account at Insight-live. It can present a complete physical properties report that calculates things like drying shrinkage, firing shrinkage, water content and LOI from these measured values.

Refined 200 mesh materials are not guaranteed to be such

Each of these eight pallets of kaolin are being sampled to screen them for oversize particles. The 50 gram samples needed can be taken without having to open the bags, they are filled through a valve at the top and it can be opened easily. Kaolins and ball clays especially are suspect and body manufacturers must be vigilant about this (each can tell you disaster stories about making product with faulty raw materials containing grit, carbon and iron particles). The samples will be washed through 70, 100 and 150 mesh screens to spot any particles that could introduce grit or fired speckle into the bodies.

Do not rely on material data sheets, do the testing

The cone 6 porcelain on the left uses Grolleg kaolin, the right uses Tile #6 kaolin. The Grolleg body needs 5-10% less feldspar to vitrify it to zero porosity. It thus contains more kaolin, yet it fires significantly whiter. Theoretically this seems simple. Tile #6 contains alot more iron than Grolleg. Wrong! According to the data sheets, Grolleg has the more iron of the two. Why does it always fire whiter? I actually do not know. But the point is, do not rely totally on numbers on data sheets, do the testing yourself.

When both mineralogy and chemistry are shown on a data sheet

Some material data sheets show both the oxide and mineralogical analyses. Dolomite, for example, is composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate minerals, these can be separated mechanically. Although this material participates in the glaze melt to source the MgO and CaO (which are oxides), it's mineralogy (the calcium and magnesium carbonates) specifically accounts for the unique way it decomposes and melts.

Lignite contamination in manufactured porcelain bodies

These particles contaminating particles are exposed on the rim of a bisque fired mug. The liqnite ones have burned away but the iron particle is still there (and will produce a speck in the glaze). Remnants of the lignite remain inside the matrix and can pinhole glazes. Since ball clays are air floated (a stream of air takes away the lighter particles and the heavier ones recycle for regrinding) it seems that contamination like this would be impossible. But the equipment requires vigilance for correct operation, especially when there is pressure to maximize production. Ores in Tennessee are higher in coal than those in Kentucky. North American clay body manufacturers who confront ball clay suppliers with this contamination find that ceramic applications have become a very small part of the total ball clay market, complaints are not taken with the same seriousness as in the past.

By Tony Hansen


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