Alternate Names: F3110, Frit KFG 4110, Ferro Crystal Frit, Ferro Frit 3110-2
This is a USA pottery frit, Ferro now calls it Frit 3110-2.
Soft sodium borosilicate frit for glazes. Since it is a good source of Na2O it is very commonly found in glaze recipes all temperatures. Often used in crystal glazes. It has a high thermal expansion, therefore useful for substitution into glazes that are shivering. Since it is somewhat soluble some precipitation can occur in glazes stored for lengthly periods.
This frit can be very useful to reduce the feldspar content in glazes (since many high feldspar glazes have low clay content and therefore poor slurry suspension properties and dried hardness). The chemistry of this frit is similar to a feldspar (but with low alumina and CaO in addition to the alkali fluxes). That means if least part of the feldspar can be substituted for Frit 3110 you can increase the kaolin (to supply the alumina) and thereby improve slurry properties. In addition you will be able to reduce the amount of troublesome calcium carbonate. Of course, glaze chemistry is needed to calculate how to do this, there are videos at digitalfire.com on how to do this.
It can be used with 3403 for bright and semi-matte wall tile glazes. This frit is also good for use as a body flux to substitute for feldspar, much lower vitrifying ranges are possible. However it is somewhat soluble, so bodies should be used soon after making them.
Cone Range: 08-8
Fusion temperature: 1400F
Flow temperature: 1700F
This frit has a very low melting point like 3124, 3134, 3185.
Formerly Frit 1078
I used a binder to form 10 gram GBMF test balls and fired them at cone 08 (1700F). Frits melt really well, they do not gas and they have chemistries we cannot get from raw materials (similar ones to these are sold by other manufacturers). These contain boron (B2O3), it is magic, a low expansion super-melter. Frit 3124 (glossy) and 3195 (silky matte) are balanced-chemistry bases (just add 10-15% kaolin for a cone 04 glaze, or more silica+kaolin to go higher). Consider Frit 3110 a man-made low-Al2O3 super feldspar. Its high-sodium makes it high thermal expansion. It works in bodies and is great to incorporate into glazes that shiver. The high-MgO Frit 3249 (for the abrasives industry) has a very-low expansion, it is great for fixing crazing glazes. Frit 3134 is similar to 3124 but without Al2O3. Use it where the glaze does not need more Al2O3 (e.g. it already has enough clay). It is no accident that these are used by potters in North America, they complement each other well. The Gerstley Borate is a natural source of boron (with issues frits do not have).
Feldspar and talc are both flux sources (glaze melters). But the fluxes (Na2O and MgO) within these materials need the right mix of other oxides with which to interact to vitrify or melt a mix. The feldspar does source other oxides for the Na2O to interact with, but lacks other fluxes and the proportions are not right, it is only beginning to soften at cone 6. The soda frit is already very active at cone 06! As high as cone 6, talc (the best source of MgO) shows no signs of melting activity at all. But a high MgO frit is melting beautifully at cone 06. While the frits are melting primarily because of the boron content, the Na2O and MgO have become active participants in the melting of a low temperature glass. In addition, the oxides exist in a glass matrix that is much easier to melt than the crystal matrix of the raw materials.
Five common North American Ferro Frits fired at 1850F on alumina tiles (each started as a 10 gram GBMF test ball and flattened during the firing). At this temperature, the differences in the degree of melting are more evident that at 1950F. The degree of melting corresponds mainly to the percentage of B2O3 present. However Frit 3134 is the runaway leader because it contains no Al2O3 to stabilize the melt. Frit 3110 is an exception, it has low boron but very high sodium.
G1916Q and J low fire ultra-clear glazes (contain Ferro Frit 3195, 3110 and EPK) fired across the range of 1650 to 2000F (these were 10 gram GBMF test balls that melted and flattened as they fired). Notice how they soften over a wide range, starting below cone 010 (1700F)! At the early stages carbon material is still visible (even though the glaze has lost 2% of its weight to this point), it is likely the source of the micro-bubbles that completely opacify the matrix even at 1950F (cone 04). This is an 85% fritted glaze, yet it still has carbon; think of what a raw glaze might have! Of course, these specimens test a very thick layer, so the bubbles are expected. But they still can be an issue, even in a thin glaze layer on a piece of ware. So to get the most transparent possible result it is wise to fire tests to find the point where the glaze starts to soften (in this case 1450F), then soak the kiln just below that (on the way up) to fire away as much of the carbon as possible. Of course, the glaze must have a low enough surface tension to release the bubbles, that is a separate issue.
These bowls are fired at cone 03. They are made from 80 Redart, 20 Ball clay. The glazes are (left to right) G1916J (Frit 3195 85, EPK 15), G191Q (Frit 3195 65, Frit 3110 20, EPK 15) and G1916T (Frit 3195 65, Frit 3249 20, EPK 15). The latter is the most transparent and brilliant, even though that frit has high MgO. The center one has a higher expansion (because of the Frit 3110) and the right one a lower expansion (because of the Frit 3249). Yet all of them survived a 300F to icewater IWCT test without crazing. This is a testament to the utility of Redart at low temperatures. A white body done at the same time crazed the left two.
The original cone 6 recipe, WCB, fires to a beautiful brilliant deep blue green (shown in column 2 of this Insight-live screen-shot). But it is crazing and settling badly in the bucket. The crazing is because of high KNaO (potassium and sodium from the high feldspar). The settling is because there is almost no clay. Adjustment 1 (column 3) eliminates the feldspar and sources Al2O3 from kaolin and KNaO from Frit 3110. The chemistry of the new chemistry is very close. To make that happen the amounts of other materials had to be juggled (you can click on any material to see what oxides it contributes). But the fired test reveals that this one, although very similar, is melting more (because the frit releases its oxide more readily than feldspar). Adjustment 2 (column 4) proposes a 10-part silica addition (to supply more SiO2). SiO2 is the glass former, the more a glaze will accept, the better. Silica is refractory so the glaze will run less. It will also fire more durable and be more resistant to leaching.
Fired at 350F/hr to 1300F and held for 15 minutes. Some are still burning off carbon (which seems strange). There are two early leaders: Ferro frit 3110 and Fusion frit F75 are starting to deform (they have almost the same chemistry). Amazingly, these two frits have low boron, they rely on high soda as the flux.
|Materials||General Frit GF-134|
|Materials||Ceradel Frit 3110|
|Materials||Fusion Frit F644|
|Materials||Keramikos Fritte 31.10|
|Materials||Fusion Frit F-75|
|Materials||Pemco Frit P-1V04|
|Materials||Hommel Frit 529|
|Materials||Potclays Frit 2266|
|Materials||Ferro Frit 4110|
|Materials||PotteryCrafts Frit P3110|
Ferro Pottery Frits 2008
Formulating a Porcelain
The principles behind formulating a porcelain are quite simple. You just need to know the purpose of each material, a starting recipe and a testing regimen.
Crackle glazes are used on decorative ceramic ware. They have a crack pattern that is a product of thermal expansion mismatch between body and glaze.
Feldspar is a natural mineral that, by itself, is the most similar to a high temperature stoneware glaze. Thus it is common to see alot of it in glaze recipes. Actually, too much.
|Co-efficient of Linear Expansion||10.08|
|Frit Melting Range (C)||1400-1700F|
|Body Maturity||This frit is an excellent body flux, 15% can move a cone 10 body down to cone 6.|