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New Zealand Halloysite

Alternate Names: New Zealand Kaolin, New Zealand PFC

Oxide Analysis Formula
SiO2 50.40% 2.41
Al2O3 35.50% 1.00
Fe2O3 0.25% 0.00
TiO2 0.05% 0.00
LOI13.80%
Oxide Weight 247.67
Formula Weight 287.32

Notes

New Zealand China Clays claim that this is the whitest clay in the world. The white primary clay deposits mined at Matauri Bay are derived from the alteration of acid volcanic rocks. The aluminosilicate feldspar minerals in the parent rhyolite have been broken down to their constituents by low temperature hydrothermal alteration and have then reconstituted as halloysite. Thus, while often called a kaolin, technically it is a halloysite.

The company has developed a unique beneficiation process (which includes filter pressing and thus the designation PFC or Premium Filter Cake) to ensure a high degree of purity. They claim 0.1% on a 240 mesh screen. This material is exported to many parts of the world.

We have found that porcelains made using this fire a little whiter and are more translucent than with Grolleg kaolin. However that comes at a cost. As a pure material, NZK is less plastic than pure Grolleg (being barely workable enough to wedge and roll into a slab, for example). Notwithstanding this NZK produces a body that is noticeably stickier. Grolleg requires less common plasticizer addition (e.g. bentonite) to create a plastic porcelain. However NZK responds especially well to VeeGum (or similar highly refined smectites and hectorites) to create highly plastic yet very white burning porcelains. But NZK will produce a significantly less vitreous body because it comes closer to the theoretical A12O2:2SiO2 chemistry (Grolleg contains significant KNaO). That means, for example, that a cone 10 porcelain having near 50% kaolin will need 5-10% more feldspar, that will need to come at the expense of the kaolin. That will, in turn, necessitate an increase in white plasticizer (thereby increasing body cost).

Related Information

This is how New Zealand kaolin powder agglomerates

These balls are easily broken down by the propeller in a slurry mixer. But they do not break down easily in a dry mixer, even when in a mix with other materials (like silica and feldspar). They just bounce around on a vibrating screen. That means that without some sort of finishing device in the dry material feed stream to break down these lumps before the pugmill, it is difficult to manufacture homogeneous plastic body employing it.

This is how much iron is in a box of the cleanest porcelain you can make!

The recipe: 50% New Zealand kaolin, 21% G200 Feldspar, 25% silica and 3% VeeGum (for cone 10R). These are the cleanest materials available. Yet it contains 0.15% iron (mainly from the 0.25% in the New Zealand kaolin, the VeeGum chemistry is not known, I am assuming it contributes zero iron). A 50 lb a box of pugged would contain about 18,000 grams of dry clay (assuming 20% water). 0.15% of 18,000 is the 27 grams of iron you see here! This mug is a typical Grolleg-based porcelain using a standard raw bentonite. A box of it contains four times as much iron. Enough to fill that cup half full!

Reduction and oxidation porcelains

Left: Cone 10R (reduction) Plainsman P700 porcelain (made using Grolleg and G200 Feldspar). Right: Plainsman Cone 6 Plainsman Polar Ice porcelain (made using New Zealand kaolin and Nepheline Syenite). Both are zero porosity. The Polar Ice is very translucent, the P700 much less. The blue coloration of the P700 is mostly a product of the suspended micro-bubbles in the feldspar clear glaze (G1947U). The cone 6 glaze is fritted and much more transparent, but it could be stained to match the blue. These are high quality combinations of glaze and body.

Closeup of Halloysite particles

Electron micrograph showing Dragonite Halloysite needle structure. For use in making porcelains, Halloysite has physical properties similar to a kaolin. However it tends to be less plastic, so bodies employing it need more bentonite or other plasticizer added. Compared to a typical kaolin it also has a higher fired shrinkage due to the nature of the way its particles densify during firing. However, Dragonite and New Zealand Halloysites have proven to be the whitest firing materials available, they make excellent porcelains.

New Zealand Kaolin original container

The original bag of this product in 2014.

Guess which mugs are made using an NZ kaolin?

The two mugs on the left: Traditional Grolleg porcelain using Nepheline and bentonite (fired to cone 10R). The right: Using New Zealand kaolin, Nepheline Syenite and VeeGum.

Cast to only 1mm wall thickness? NZ Kaolin+VeeGum can.

This cast bowl (just out of the mold and dried) is 130mm in diameter and 85mm deep and yet the walls are only 1mm thick and it only weighs 89 gm! The slip was in the mold for only 1 minute. What slip? A New Zealand Halloysite based cone 6 translucent porcelain. This NZ material is fabulous for casting slips (it needs a little extra plasticizer also to give the body the strength to pull away from the mold surface as it shrinks).

Compare powder color of super white kaolins

These three materials also fire to a similar color. Grolleg is the most plastic, Dragonite the least.

Cone 6 translucent marbled bowl by Tony Hansen

A transparent glazed. It is a made from Plainsman Polar Ice in 2014 (a New Zealand kaolin based porcelain) and fired to cone 6 with G2926B clear glaze. 5% Mason 6306 teal blue stain was added to the clay, then this was wedged only a few times. The piece was thrown, then trimmed on the outside at the leather hard stage and sanded on the inside when dry.

Cone 6 porcelain marbled and thrown

Polar ice marbled porcelain bowls by Tony Hansen

These bowls were made by Tony Hansen using a mixture of white and stained New-Zealand-kaolin-based porcelain (Plainsman Polar Ice) fired at cone 6. The body is not only white, but very translucent.

Now that is a translucent porcelain!

Polar Ice porcelain mug with a light inside to demonstrate its translucency

These are two cone 6 transparent glazed porcelain mugs with a light bulb inside. On the left is the porcelainous Plainsman M370 (Laguna B-Mix 6 would have similar opacity). Right is a zero-porosity New Zealand kaolin based porcelain called Polar Ice (from Plainsmanclays.com also)! The secret to making a plastic porcelain this white and translucent is not just the NZ kaolin, but the use of a very expensive plasticizer, VeeGum T, to enable maximizing the feldspar to get the fired maturity.

Guess which of these fired clays employs New Zealand kaolin

The whitest test bar here is a New-Zealand-kaolin-based cone 6 porcelain (NZK). NZK has low plasticity, so this body employs VeeGum to improve it. Immediately to the left of it are three North American-koalin-based bodies using standard bentonites. The bar to its right is a Grolleg-based body that uses a standard bentonite rather than a white burning one. All are plastic.

Why mid-fire Grolleg porcelain is ideal for both throwing and casting

Two purple-outside, white inside thrown Grolleg cone 6 porcelain mugs

The very whitest porcelains are made from New Zealand kaolin. However, while Grolleg kaolin does not fire quite as white, it requires up to 10% less feldspar to produce a vitreous porcelain (it contains natural feldspar). That 10% less spar can be made up in kaolin, imparting better workability and dry strength to the body (and Grolleg is known for its dry strength). Assuming that 25% silica is needed for glaze fit, one only needs to discover what blend of feldspar and kaolin in the remaining 75% achieves the desired degree of vitrification (e.g. we like zero porosity just-reached at cone 6). We found 25% nepheline was too vitreous (pieces warped) and at 20% porosity was not yet zero. While the Grolleg version fires a little darker, the better workability imparted by the extra kaolin makes up for that. The plasticity needed for good throwing requires the addition of bentonite (4% for NZK and 3% for Grolleg). Both of these can be made into casting bodies by reducing the amount of bentonite (~ 1% for NZK, 0.5% for Grolleg). Do your testing to discover the % of bentonite needed for the leather hard to pull away from a mold without cracking but not take too long to cast.

Links

Minerals Halloysite
Materials Dragonite Halloysite
Materials Grolleg Kaolin
Materials Veegum

By Tony Hansen


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