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Tony Hansen's Thousand-Post TimeLine

I am the creator of Digitalfire Insight, Digitalfire.com and Insight-live.com. I have made hundreds of posts like these on my Facebook page and personal timeline. My posts are like no others, they help you understand your glazes and clay bodies, take control. They are also part of the Digitalfire Reference Database (referenced from one or more articles, glossary entries, materials, oxides, test procedures, etc). Visit and Like my page to get a notification each time I post.

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What is that black stuff on these two glazes?

Two low temperature glazes (G1916J, G1916Q) containing only frit and kaolin fired to 1250F (they have been dewatered enough to form into balls). The carbon is part of the LOI of the kaolin (that hardens and suspends the glaze). Yet these glazes have much lower carbon content than ones made from raw materials.

Monday 17th November 2014

L3724E ball milled flocculated slip has been applied to L3685U low fire white stoneware. Notice how silky smooth it is. What is the secret of getting a perfectly even layer that does not drip: Thin the slip until it is fairly watery (stays in motion for 10 seconds or more after stirring) and then flocculating it using Epsom salts until it gels enough to stay in motion for less than 2 seconds.

Thursday 27th November 2014

All that powder with that little water for a casting slip?

This is 8.4L of water (in the bottom of that pail) and a 20kg bag of Polar Ice porcelain casting clay. Amazingly enough it is possible to get all that powder into that little bit of water and still have a very fluid slurry for casting. The volume will increase to only 2/3 of this 5 gallon pail. How is this possible? That water has 100 grams of Darvan 7 deflocculant in it, it causes the clay particles to repel each other such that you can make a liquid with only little more water than is in a throwing clay! All it takes is 15 minutes under a good power propeller mixer.

Friday 21st November 2014

How much porcelain flux is too much?

A porcelain mug has pulled slightly oval because of the weight of the handle. This happens in highly vitrified porcelains (e.g. translucent ones). The amount of feldspar or frit in the body determines the degree of maturity, the correct percentage is a balance between enough to get the maximum translucency and hardness but not so much that ware is deforming excessively during firing. This is Plainsman Polar Ice at cone 6, this degree of warp is acceptable and can be compensated for.

Monday 1st December 2014

Two bentonites that should not look this similar

The powders of HPM-20 bentonite (left) and National Standard 325 bentonite (right) fired to cone 6. Both have sintered into a solid mass. The HPM-20 is much more expensive because of the extra grinding done to make it micro-fine (for non-ceramic uses). However, its data sheet shows an Fe2O3 content double that of the National Standard material. That means the latter should be firing to alot lighter color. But they seem very similar.

Saturday 29th November 2014

What is sintering?

Bentonite fired to 1950F in a small crucible. It is sintering, the particles are bonding even though there is no glass development. The powdered mass is behaving as a unit, the cohesive forces holding it together are enough to shrink the entire mass away from the walls of the container. This sintering process continues slowly, beginning around 1650. Most raw bentonites, this is National Standard 200 mesh, have a fairly low melting point, this will begin to fuse soon.

Friday 22nd July 2011

Mason stains in G2934 matte base glaze

These are Mason stains added to the cone 6 G2934 silky MgO matte liner base glaze (with tin, zircopax and various stains added). The brightest colors (6600, 6350, 6300, 6021, 6404) were tested overnight in lemon juice without visible changes. It is known that MgO mattes are less prone to acid attack that CaO mattes. Caution is required with inclusion stains (like #6021), if they are rated to cone 8 they may already begin bubbling at cone 6 is some host glazes.

Tuesday 1st April 2014

Mason stains in a cone 6 clear base

These are Mason stains added to cone 6 G2926B clear liner base glaze. Notice that the chrome tin maroon 6006 does not develop as well as the G2916F glossy base recipe. The 6020 manganese alumina pink is also not developing. Caution is required with inclusion stains (like #6021), if they are rated to cone 8 they may already begin bubbling at cone 6 is some host glazes.

Wednesday 9th April 2014

Mason stains in a cone 6 clear base

These are Mason stains added to cone 6 G2916F clear liner base glaze. Notice that all of these stains develop the correct colors with this base (except for manganese alumina pink 6020). However caution is required with inclusion stains (like #6021), if they are rated to cone 8 they may already begin bubbling at cone 6 is some host glazes.

Thursday 3rd April 2014

Pushing the limits of an encapsulated stain

Mason 6021 encapsulated stain in Plainsman M370 transparent fired at cone 6 on M370 (with second layer of two other colors). Notice the bubbling. This stain is rated to 2300F, it appears that even cone 6 is pushing its limits.

Friday 7th November 2014

Cone 03 stoneware. I am almost there!

Cone 03 white stoneware with red terra cotta ball-milled slip and transparent overglaze. These are eye-popping stunning. They are test L3685U (Ferro frit 3110, #6 tile kaolin, Silica), near the final mix for a white low fire stoneware. The G1916J glaze is super clear. Why? Two reasons. These were fired in a schedule designed to burn off the gases from the bentonite in the body before the glaze fuses (it soaks the kiln for 2 hours at 1400F). Terra cotta clays generate alot of gases at cone cone 03, but here the terra cotta is only a thin slip over the much cleaner burning white body.

Saturday 22nd November 2014

Cone 6 black with a second layer of oatmeal glaze

The underglaze is G1214M cone 6 black (adds 5% Mason 6666 black stain). Overglaze left: GR6-H Ravenscrag Oatmeal. Overglaze right: GA6-F Alberta Slip oatmeal. Both produce a very pleasant silky matte texture (the right being the best). Both layers are fairly thin. In production it would be best to spray the second layer, keeping it as thin as possible. It is also necessary to adjust the ratio of raw to calcined Alberta or Ravenscrag Slips to establish a balance between drying hardness but not too much drying shrinkage (and resultant cracking).

Friday 20th December 2013

When a rutile blue glaze no longer fires blue

Left: What GA6-C Alberta Slip rutile blue used to look like. Middle: When it started firing wrong, the color was almost completely lost. Right: The fix. The problem? We were adjusting firing schedules over time to find ways to reduce pinholing in other glazes and bodies, the focus was slowing the final stages of firing and soaking there. In those efforts the key firing phase that create this effect was lost: it happens many hundreds of degrees on the way down from cone 6. The key? A 30 minute soak after cooling 270F from cone 6, then 150F/hr drop to 1400F.

Friday 20th December 2013

A batch of fired clay test bars in the Plainsman Clays lab

A batch of fired test bars that have just been boiled and weighed, from these we get dry shrinkage, fired shrinkage and porosity. Each pile is a different mix, fired to various temperatures. Test runs are on the left, production runs on the right. Each bar is stamped with an ID and specimen number (the different specimens are the different temperatures) and the measurements have all be entered into our group account at insight-live.com. Now I have to take each pile and assess the results to make decisions on what to do next (documenting these in insight-live).

Friday 21st November 2014

The magic of a small barium carbonate addition to a clay body

Two bisqued terracotta mugs. The clay on the right has 0.35% added barium carbonate (it precipitates salts dissolved in the clay to prevent them coming to the surface with the water and being left there during drying). The process is called efflorescence and is the bane of the brick industry. The one on the left is the natural clay. The unsightly appearance is fingerprints from handling the piece in the leather-hard state, the salts have concentrated in these areas (the other piece was also handled, but has very little marking).

Thursday 2nd January 2014

The classic cone 6 floating blue? No, it is Alberta Slip blue.

Fairly close in appearance to the classic cone 6 floating blue recipe used across North America, this is a variation of the Alberta Slip Rutile Blue glaze (except this adds 1% tin oxide, 1% black copper oxide and 2% ceramic rutile, it is GA6-C1). Because of the melt fluidity, it thins on the edges of contours and breaks to the color of the underlying body. It looks best on dark bodies, but if thick it is OK on light ones also.

Tuesday 23rd July 2013

The whitest burning plasticizer we have seen

Bentone (A.K.A. Macaloid MA) is a very plastic highly refined hectorite clay. This specimen has been mixed as a slurry, then dewatered until plastic on a plaster slab (it is very resistant to giving up its water). The plastic material has a very high water content, is exceptionally sticky and took many days to dry from the plastic stage. It shrinks 30% or more from plastic to fired and burns pure white at cone 6 (it can withstand higher temperatures). It burns whiter than similar materials from other manufacturers.

Wednesday 12th November 2014

Tenmokus made from Alberta Slip and Ravenscrag Slip

GR10-K1 Cone 10R Ravenscrag Tenmoku (right) compared to Tenmoku made from Alberta Slip (left, it is 91% Alberta Slip with 5% added calcium carbonate and 2% iron oxide). Left is Plainsman P700 porcelain, right is H570. Tenmokus are popular for the way they break to a crystalline light brown on the edges of contours.

Tuesday 23rd July 2013

Turbo-charge plasticity using bentonite, hectorite, smectite.

These are porosity and fired shrinlage test bars, code numbered to have their data recorded in our group account at Insight-live.com. Plainsman P580 (top) has 35% ball clay and 17% American kaolin. H570 (below it) has 10% ball clay and 45% kaolin, so it burns whiter (but has a higher fired shrinkage). P700 (third down) has 50% Grolleg kaolin and no ball clay, it is the whitest and has even more fired shrinkage. Crysanthos porcelain (bottom, from China) also only employs kaolin, but at a much lower percentage, thus is has almost no plasticity (suitable for machine forming only). Do H570 and P700 sacrifice plasticity to be whiter? No, with added bentonite they have better plasticity than P580. Could that bottom one be super-charged? Yes, 3-4% VeeGum or Bentone (smectite, hectorite) would make it the most plastic of all of these (at a high cost of course).

Sunday 30th October 2011

An additive that will make a glaze crawl

Light magnesium carbonate has been added to a low temperature terra cotta white glaze (about 10%). It induces crawling. It also mattes the glaze because it sources MgO.

Wednesday 25th July 2012

Alberta Slip cone 6 base slow cooled

GA6-A Alberta Slip base glaze (80 Alberta Slip:20 Frit 3134) fired with Plainsman slow cool cone 6 firing schedule on Plainsman M390 iron red clay. If this is cooled at normal speed, it fires to a glossy clear amber glass with no crystals.

Wednesday 19th November 2014

Underglaze color mayhem!

Commercial underglaze colors fired at cone 5 in a flow tester. Underglazes blend stains with a host recipe that should fuse them enough to adhere well to the body (two of these have not even begun to do that). The blue, green and red are from one manufacturer. Stain powders have different melting temperatures, so underglaze formulators must treat each stain individually, customizing the underglaze recipe to its melting behavior. As you can see, they have failed to do that here, the pink one has shrunk to half its size and is about to melt (it needs less flux). The green one is only sintered (it needs more flux). The black underglaze (D) (from a second manufacturer) contains gassing materials, it has become an Aero chocolate bar and is about to race down the runway. The E black (a third manufacturer) has not even started to melt or even sinter. The blacks were plastic, the colored ones were not. I am confused. How could the glaze possibly stick well to the body with the green or unmelted black under it?

Wednesday 5th November 2014

Marbling using a translucent porcelain

A transparent glazed marbled bowl by Tony Hansen. It is a made from Plainsman Polar Ice (a New Zealand kaolin based porcelain) and fired to cone 6. 5% Mason 6306 teal blue stain was added to the clay, then this was wedged only a few times. The piece was thrown, then trimmed on the outside at the leather hard stage and sanded on the inside when dry.

Thursday 5th September 2013

Highly refined plasticizers after firing to cone 6

Veegum (left), Mineral Colloid and Gelwhite fired to cone 6 oxidation. The Veegum is dense and white, but not melting. The Mineral Colloid fires like a typical raw bentonite (dark brown, high soluble salts and beginning to melt). The Gelwhite is completely melted and foamed.

Friday 27th December 2013

M340 Transparent Liner with Mason stains

M340 Transparent Liner glaze fired at slightly lower than cone 6. Using these modest stain amounts the degree of melting of the glaze is not overly affected (these were balls, they flattened during firing). However as a glaze layer on a body, many of these will not be as dark as you see here.

Thursday 22nd May 2014

Some glazes look great on red clay and horrible on white

Alberta Slip cone 6 lithium brown (GA6-G1) on a red burning clay (left Plainsman M390) and buff burning (right M340). Obviously this looks better on the former where iron from the underlying body variegates the entire surface and bleeds through on contours where the glaze is thinner, creating a breaking effect.

Tuesday 11th November 2014

M390 Cone 6 red with added kyanite, grog

Samples fired to cone 6. Lower left: Plainsman M390. Upper left: M390 plus 12.5% 48 mesh kyanite (no visible effect on fired color or character). Upper right: M390 plus 12.5% Christie STKO 22S 40 mesh grog (strangely it fires a darker color and appears more vitreous and there is no soluble salts circle). Both grogs were wedged into the clay and did not stiffen it or affect plasticity much (in fact, both were easier to pull up during throwing). The percentage water content went from the 21% to 19% in both.

Monday 10th November 2014

Guess which mugs are made using an NZ kaolin?

The two mugs on the left: Traditional Grolleg porcelain using Nepheline and bentonite (fired to cone 10R). The right: Using New Zealand kaolin, Nepheline Syenite and VeeGum.

Friday 25th April 2014

Reduction and oxidation porcelains

Left: Cone 10R (reduction) Grolleg porcelain (Plainsman P700 made using Grolleg and G200 Feldspar). Right: Cone 6 Plainsman Polar Ice porcelain made using New Zealand kaolin and Nepheline Syenite. Both are zero porosity. The Polar Ice is very translucent, the P700 much less. The blue coloration of the P700 is mostly a product of the suspended micro-bubbles in the feldspar clear glaze (G1947U). The cone 6 glaze is fritted and much more transparent, but it could be stained to match the blue. These are high quality combinations of glaze and body.

Thursday 2nd October 2014

Which is the better flux? Cornwall stone or nepheline syenite?

Left: Cornwall plus 10% Ferro Frit 3134. Right: Nepheline Syenite plus 10% of the same frit. These are fired at cone 6.

Wednesday 12th November 2014

Making a wood ash glaze

Iron stained wood ash glaze fired at cone 6. These glazes need to be reformulated with each new batch of ash you get (since the ash chemistry changes). This one was formulated by quadraxial blending the ash with feldspar, silica and kaolin to get a sweet spot, then fine tuning and finally adding about 4% rutile to variegate it.

Tuesday 8th June 2010

A breaking glaze highlight incised decoration

This is the Ravenscrag slip cone 6 base (GR6-A which is 80 Ravenscrag, 20 Frit 3134) with 10% Mason 6006 stain. Notice how the color is white where it thins on contours, this is called "breaking". Thus we say that this glaze "breaks to white". The development of this color needs the right chemistry in the host glaze and it needs depth to work (on the edges the glaze is too thin so there is no color). The breaking phenomenon has many mechanisms, this is just one. Interestingly, this transparent base has more entrained micro-bubbles than a frit-based glaze, these enhance the color effect.

Friday 23rd August 2013

Red burning clays bubble glazes more

A closeup of the rim and a transparent-glazed cup made from a high-iron clay (Plainsman Redstone) and fired at cone 6. Iron-bearing clays tend to gas more on firing and can generate many more bubbles in glazes for this reason (a buff stoneware would be almost free of bubbles with this glaze, Plainsman M340 transparent). Thus, it is best to use opacified glazes with this type of body.

Tuesday 11th November 2014

Fine tuning glaze shrinkage vs. hardness

These mugs are fired at cone 6 with GA6-G1 Alberta Slip lithium brown. The difference: the ratio of raw to calcine Alberta Slip. In this glaze, a 50:50 ratio was not working well (left). The glaze was shrinking too much on drying, then crawling on firing (it needs to be thickly applied to get the visual effect I want). I mixed the recipe using pure calcine Alberta Slip, then repeated a cycle of pouring a little of this into the 50:50 mix and trying it. I kept doing that and glazing another mug until I had a minimum of drying cracks (while still having good gelling, application properties and dry hardness). The mug on the right was the last cycle, it has fired perfect. Using this technique I can perfect the ratio of raw:calcine for each Alberta Slip glaze I use.

Tuesday 11th November 2014

Cast to only 1mm wall thickness? NZ Kaolin+VeeGum can.

This cast bowl (just out of the mold and dried) is 130mm in diameter and 85mm deep and yet the walls are only 1mm thick and it only weighs 89 gm! The slip was in the mold for only 1 minute. What slip? A New Zealand Halloysite based cone 6 translucent porcelain. This NZ material is fabulous for casting slips (it needs a little extra plasticizer also to give the body the strength to pull away from the mold surface as it shrinks).

Wednesday 5th February 2014

Bubbles in Terra Cotta transparent glazes. What to do?

Two transparent glazes applied thickly and fired to cone 03 on a terra cotta body. Right: A commercial bottled clear, I had to paint it on in layers. Left: G1916S almost-zero-raw-clay glaze, a mix of Ferro frit 3195, 3110, calcined kaolin and a small amount of VeeGum T. The bubbles you see on the left are from the gas generated by the body. The ones on the right are from body and glaze. How can so many more bubbles be generated within a glaze? Raw kaolin. Kaolin loses 12% of its weight on firing, that turns to gas. Low temperature glazes melt early, while gassing may still be happening. So to get a crystal clear the raw clay content has to be as low as possible. Obviously, a white burning body made from refined materials would be even better. A good compromise: A red slip (or engobe) over a white burning body, it would generate far less gases because of being much thinner and still exhibit the nice red color.

Tuesday 4th November 2014

The same raw material, same temperature, different batches!

Test bars of three different batches of PV Clay (a plastic feldspar) fired at cone 8 (porosity is shown). This is how much a manufactured material can vary, obviously body blenders need to be watching the properties of the materials they receive. This raw material is employed in many clay bodies in North America as a plastic flux.

Wednesday 17th April 2013

4 good reasons to consider making your own underglazes

Commercial underglaze colors fired at cone 8 in a flow tester (this is another good example of how valuable flow testers are). Underglazes need to melt enough to bond with the underlying body, but not so much that edges of designs bleed excessively into the overlying glaze. A regular glaze would melt enough to run well down the runway on this tester, but an underglaze should flow much less. The green one here is clearly not sufficiently developed. The black is too melted (and contains volatiles that are gasing). The pink is much further along than the blue. And cone 5, these samples all melt significantly less. Clearly, underglazes need to be targeted to melt at specific temperatures and each color needs specific formulation attention.

Thursday 6th November 2014

The same clays except for one tiny difference

An example of how effective barium carbonate is at precipitating the soluble salts in a terra cotta clay. These two unglazed, cone 04 fired, mugs are made from the same clay, but the one on the right has 0.35% added barium carbonate.

Thursday 2nd January 2014

Flawless Ravenscrag Slip based glazes on a cone 6 stoneware

Plainsman M340 with Ravenscrag clear (inside) and pink glazes at cone 6. These were fired in a larger electric kiln at a slower firing rate, so the glaze has no imperfections. This pink glaze has proven to be very reliable and attractive on many clay bodies, it employs a stain rather than raw chrome and tin oxides.

Thursday 16th October 2014

Cornwall stone variation

Cornwall Stone as it changes over time. Left: Traditional blue material, could be 20 years old. Center: A shipment we got in Feb 2014. Right: A shipment in Oct 2014. Front: 10 gram balls prepared for melt flow test. The blue powder is the most difficult to form after water has been added, the tan one is the easiest.

Wednesday 5th November 2014

What does it take to get a crystal-clear low fire transparent? A lot!

These three cups are glazed with G1916S at cone 03. The glaze is the most crystal clear achieved so far because it contains almost no gas producing materials (not even raw kaolin). It contains Ferro frits 3195 and 3110 plus 11 calcined kaolin and 3 VeeGum. Left is a low fire stoneware (L3685T), center is Plainsman L212 and right a vitreous terra cotta (L3724F). It is almost crystal clear, it has few bubbles compared to the kaolin-suspended version. These all survived a 300F/icewater test without crazing!

Thursday 30th October 2014

A true matte is still matte when you over fire it

The top glaze is VC71, a popular matte cone 6 glaze used by potters. Bottom is G2934 matte, a public domain recipe produced by Plainsman Clays. The latter is a high-MgO matte, it melts well and does not cutlery mark or stain easily. As evidence that it is a true matte, notice that it is still matte when fired to cone 7 or 8. VC71, while having a similar pleasant silky matte surface at cone 6, converts to a glossy if fired higher. This suggests that the cone 6 matteness is due to incomplete melting. For the same reason, it is whiter in color (as soon as it begins to melt and have depth the color darkens).

Monday 3rd November 2014

Spodumene can bubble when mixed with water.

This is what happens when some spodumenes are mixed with water. They generate foam and bubbles. This is disruptive in glazes and can be alleviated by washing the spodumene before use.

Thursday 9th January 2014

Do grog additions always produce better drying performance?

This DFAC drying performance test compares a typical white stoneware body (left) and the same body with 10% added 50-80 mesh molochite grog. The character of the crack changes somewhat, but otherwise there appears to be no improvement. While the grog addition reduces drying shrinkage by 0.5-0.75% it also cuts dry strength (as a result, the crack is jagged, not a clean line). The grog vents water to the surface better, notice the soluble salts do not concentrate as much. Another issue is the jagged edges of the disk, it is more difficult to cut a clean line in the plastic clay.

Friday 24th January 2014

Stoneware from your terra cotta body? Is is very possible.

Some terra cotta clays can be used to produce stoneware by firing them a few cones higher. Terra Cottas are almost always nowhere near vitrified at their traditional cone 04-06 temperatures, so they can often stand much higher firing. However, clear glazes do not usually work well in higher firing since products of decomposition from the vitrifying body fill them will microbubbles, clouding the surface. In addition, the body turns dark brown under clear glazes. But with a white glaze, these are not a problem. This is Plainsman L210 fired to cone 2. The glaze is 80% Frit 3195, 20% kaolin and 10-12% zircopax, it fires to a brilliant flawless surface.

Friday 24th January 2014

How to test drying and firing compatibility between engobe and body

I have made bi-body strips for testing to tune a white slip for a terra cotta clay body (about 4 mm thick). They need to shrink a similar amount in drying and firing to be as compatible as possible. Here, the white body needs more plastic clay or a bentonite addition to shrink more. It also needs a little less frit or a coarser silica to shrink a little less on firing (pending porosity tests to match their fired density). Amazingly, the fired bars break much more easily one way that the other, because on one side the clay is being stretched (and ceramic does not do well under tension).

Sunday 1st June 2014

What really is a reduction copper red glaze?

I am looking for patterns in Cooper Red glaze chemistry and not finding any. I pasted some recipes I found on the net into my account at insight-live.com, then exported them as CSV, opened it in Open Office Calc, removed the unneeded rows, transposed it, fiddled with the column and row titles and combined some rows to get this. CaO varies alot, so does KNaO (I expected the latter to be high always). The Al2O3 is all over the map, so is B2O3. Even the copper sees a four-fold difference! Some have or have no ZnO, MgO and Li2O. However SiO2 is always 3.5 or lower and CaO is always above 0.45, while that is at least something of a pattern, most cone 10R glazes have this anyway. It seems that just about any transparent glaze will make a copper red.

Monday 10th March 2014

Alberta and Ravenscrag Slip pure at cone 5 reduction

At cone 5R pure Alberta Slip (left) is beginning to melt and flow down the runway of this tester. It is producing a matte gunmetal surface. Pure Ravenscrag Slip (right) is just starting (it needs frit to develop melt fluidity at this temperature). The iron in the Alberta Slip is melting it because of the reduction atmosphere in the kiln (it does not move like this in oxidation).

Wednesday 25th July 2012

Even highly fritted glazes have to liberate some carbon

G1916Q and J low fire ultra-clear glazes (contain Ferro Frit 3195, 3110 and EPK) fired to 1700F on a porcelain tile. Notice the amount of carbon still trapped in the glass. Although only a small amount is present from the kaolin, and it will escape, but not without leaving lots of micro-bubbles behind.

Thursday 16th October 2014


These posts are actually pictures referenced on pages in The Digitalfire Reference Database, thousands of pages of explaining things you need to know to formulate, adjust and troubleshoot traditional ceramic bodies and glazes. It is organized as: Oxides, minerals, materials, recipes, articles, glossary, hazards, library, MDTs for INSIGHT, pictures, properties, firing schedules, significant temperatures, tests and troubleshooting. Level 2 desktop INSIGHT and Insight-Live both interact with it.

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