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Silver Compounds Toxicology

Compounds :

-silver nitrate,
-silver chloride,
-silver oxide,
-silver sulfide.

Physical Form :
 
Elemental silver is a lustrous, white, solid metal

Uses :

-photographic materials,
-electrical and electronics products,
-alloys and solders,
-jewellery, mirrors, flatware, and coinage,
-ceramics

Silver Chloride

Identification :

CAS Number : 7783-90-6
Molecular Formula : AgCl
Molecular Weight : 143,34

Main Synonyms :

French names :
Argent, chlorure d'
Argent, Chlorure de
Chlorure d'argent
English Names :
Silver chloride
Silver Chloride (AGCL)
Silver Monochloride Chlorous Acid,
Silver Salt

Uses and Sources of Emission :
 
Plating agent, in ceramics.

Hygiene and safety :

I-Appearance : b
Powdery, white, odourless solid

II-Physical Properties :
 
Physical state : Solid
Density : 5,56 g/ml at 20 °C
Solubility in water : Insoluble
Melting Point : 455,00 °C
Boiling point : 1 550,00 °C
Vapor pressure : 1 mm Hg at 1,674 F (912 C)

Inflammability and Explosiveness :

I-Inflammability :
This product is non flammable.

II-Techniques and Means of Extinction :
This substance is not combustible.
Means of extinction :
If the product is involved in a fire, use any means of extinction appropriate for the surrounding materials.
Special techniques :
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes. Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to prevent contact with thermal decomposition products. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic fumes

Prévention :

I-Reactivity :

Stability :
Stable at room temperature stored in hermetic containers under normal conditions of handling and storage.
This product is unstable under the following conditions :
The exposure to light causes a slow chlorine and silver release (the accumulation of chlorine in a confined space can be hazardous to those who enter this space - chlorine being very irritating and corrosive to tissues)
It darkens when exposed to light. It can emit chlorine and oxides of silver if it is heated to decomposition.
Incompatibility :
This product is incompatible with these substances :
-ammonia,
-aluminium,
-aluminium hydroxide,
-potassium,
-sodium,
-bromine trifluoride.
It can explode in contact with these substances.
Products of decomposition :
It can emit chlorine and oxides of silver if it is heated to decomposition.
Condition to avoid : Extreme heat.

II-Handling :
 
Avoid contact with the eyes, skin, clothing, ingestion and inhalation. Wear ocular protection, and, in the event of insufficient ventilation, a suitable breathing apparatus. Minimize the production and the accumulation of dust. Keep containers well closed.
Do not eat or smoke during its use. Wash yourself well after handling it.

III-Storage :
 
Store in a cool, dark, well ventilated place, away from any source of ignition and far from combustible materials. Store in hermetic containers.

Leaks :

I-General information :
Use suitable equipment of personal protection. Provide ventilation.
II-Leaks :
Collect wastes immediately and put them in a hermetic container. Avoid producing dust.

Wastes :
 
Consult local authorities.

Precautions :
 
Avoid inhaling dust. Use in a well ventilated place. Avoid contact with the eyes and the skin, more especially if it is irritated or cracked. Keep your workplace as free of dust as possible.

Recommended Personal Protection :

I-Respiratory Protection :
Any NIOSH/MSHA approved dust respirator at levels up to five times the PEL. At higher levels use a self-contained breathing apparatus with full face piece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
II-Eye Protection :
Dust-proof safety goggles.
III-Ventilation :
Sufficient to keep dust air levels below the workplace exposure limits. Fume hood.
IV-Protective Clothing :
8-inch minimum face shield, gloves and other clothing to protect exposed skin from prolonged or repeated contact. Rubber for all contact.
V-Other Protective Equipment :
Eyewash station or hose suitable for irrigation of the eyes. Goggles.

Toxicology :

I-Absorption :
This product is absorbed by the respiratory and digestive tracts.

II-Acute Effects :
One refers to the toxicity of inorganic silver salts : possible irritation of the eyes, the skin and the mucous membranes.

III-Chronic Effects :
 
A-Inhalation :
Repeated exposure can cause a slight chronic bronchitis, with cough and shortness of breath. It can also cause a permanent blue/grey discolouration (argyria) of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat.
B-Eyes :
Repeated ocular contact can cause a permanent blue/grey discolouration (argyria) of the mucous membranes of the eyes.
C-Skin :
Repeated cutaneous contact can cause a permanent blue/grey discolouration (argyria) of the skin. It was found that repeated contact of the skin with silver compounds can cause allergic reactions in a small number of apparently predisposed people, including irritation and hypersensitivity.

Aggravation of Preexistent Conditions :
Acute exposure can worsen chronic pulmonary diseases

V-Pregnancy :

A-Effects on development :
No data concerning antenatal development was found in the consulted documentary sources.
B-Effects on reproduction :
No data concerning reproduction was found in the consulted documentary sources.
C-Effects on breast milk :
There is no data concerning its excretion or detection in milk.

V-Cancerogenic Effects :
No data was found in the consulted documentary sources.

VI-Mutagenic Effects :
No data was found in the consulted documentary sources.

First aid :

I-Eyes :
Rinse eyes with plenty of water during at least 15 minute, raising the eyelids several times.
II-Skin :
Wash skin with soap and water during at least 15 minute.
III-Inhalation :
In the event of inhalation of vapors or dust, bring the person into a ventilated place. If the respirarion is difficult, give him oxygen. If he does not breathe any more, give him artificial respiration. Do not give mouth to mouth respiration. Call a doctor.
IV-Ingestion :
In the event of ingestion, not to induce vomiting. If the victim is conscious and alert, give 2 to 4 cups water or of milk. Never give anything by the mouth to a person who is unsconscious. Ask for medical help immediately.

Environmental Fate :
No data was found in the consulted documentary sources.

Environmental toxicity :
No data was found in the consulted documentary sources

Silver Nitrate

Identification :

CAS Number : 7761-88-8
UN Number : UN1493
Molecular formula : AgNO3
Molecular weight : 169.89

Main Synonyms :

French Names :
Nitrate d'argent
English Names :
Silver nitrate toughened
Lunar caustic
Nitric acid silver (1+) salt
Silver mononitrate

Uses and Sources of Emission :

-Catalyst,
-manufacture of inorganic products,
-in ceramics.

Hygiene and Safety :

I-Appearance :
White, odourless solid crystals.

II-Physical Properties :
 
Physical state : Solid
Molecular mass : 169,89
Density : 4,352 g/ml at 20 °C
Solubility in water : Soluble 219g/100g water @ 20C (68F).
Vapor density (air=1) : 4,4
Melting point : 212,00 °C
Boiling point : 444C (831F), it decomposes.
Vapor density : (Air=1) : 4.4
Vapor pressure (mm Hg) : Very low

III-Inflammability and Explosiveness :
Inflammability :
Can ignite in contact with organic materials.
Explosiveness :
Several reactions can cause explosions. It reacts with ammonia to produce materials sensitive to mechanical shock. This oxidizing material can increase the inflammability of adjacent combustible materials.
Means of extinction :
Spray water in great amounts. Do not use dry chemicals, carbon dioxide or Halon. Do not allow water to enter sewers and water supply network.
Special techniques :
In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

IV-Combustion Products :
If involved in a fire, it can emit nitrogen oxides.

Prevention :

I-Reactivity :

Stability :
Stable at room temperature when stored in sealed containers.
This product is unstable under the following conditions : When it is heated it decomposes at 440 C. It becomes gray or gray-black if exposed to light and in the presence of organic materials.
Incompatibility :
This product is incompatible with these substances : Reducing agents, alkalis, ammonia, organic materials, oxydable or combustible materials, chlorosulfonic acid, ferrous salts, hypophosphites, tartrates, sugars, tannic acid, carbonates, iodides, thiocyanates, formaldehyde, hydrazine.
Products of decomposition :
Thermal decomposition (440 degrees Celsius) products : metallic silver, nitrogen, oxygen and nitrogen oxides.

II-Handling :
Wear eye protection. Avoid any contact with the skin. Ventilate adequately if not wear a suitable breathing apparatus. Wear suitable protective clothing. Do not eat nor drink during use.

III-Storage :
Store away from incompatible materials.
Keep away from combustible, organic or easily oxydable materials.
Store in an airtight container placed in a cool, dry and well ventilated place.
Keep in a dark place, away from any source of heat and ignition.
Protect from physical damage and moisture. Avoid storing on wooden floors.
Containers having contained this product can be dangerous when empty since they can contain residues.

IV-Accidental Leaks :
Remove any source of ignition. Ventilate the area where the leak or spill took place.
Wear suitable personal protection equipment. Collect waste in such a way as to not disperse dust in the air. Use tools and equipment that do not spark.
Reduce airborne dust and prevent its dispersion by humidifying it with water. Collect wastes, put them in a hermetic container and dispose of in accordance with local legislation.

V-Ventilation :
A system of local and/or general ventilation is recommended to keep the exposure of workers under the legal limits. Local aspiration is generally recommemded because it controls the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing its dispersion into the general work area.

VI-Personal Protection :

Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):
If the exposure limit is exceeded and engineering controls are not feasible, a full facepiece particulate respirator (NIOSH type N100 filters) may be worn for up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. If oil particles (e.g. lubricants, cutting fluids. glycerine, etc.) are present, use a NIOSH type R or P filter. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Skin Protection :
Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Eye Protection :
Use chemical safety goggles and/or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

VII-Waste Disposal :
Consult with local authorities.

Toxicology :

I-Experimental Toxicology :
LD50, oral, in the rat : 1173 mg/kg.

II-IDLH : (Immediate danger to life and health) : 10 mg/m³ expressed as Ag

III-Absorption :
This product is absorbed by the skin, the digestive and respiratory tracts

IV-Acute Effects :
 
A-Eyes :
Corrosive.
Can cause :
-blurred vision,
-redness, pain,
-serious tissue burns,
-ocular damage.
B-Skin :
Corrosive.
Can cause :
- redness,
- pain,
- serious burns
C-Inhalation :
Extremely destructive to the tissues of the mucous membranes and the higher respiratory tract. The symptoms encountered may include :
-burning sensation,
-cough,
-wheezing,
-laryngitis,
-shortness of breath,
-headache,
-nausea and vomiting.
This product may be absorbed into the body following inhalation and the symptoms resemble those caused by ingestion. Lung dust deposits may cause a form of pneumoconiosis.
D-Ingestion :
Corrosive. Ingestion can cause serious burns of the mouth, throat and stomach. It is a poison. The symptoms include :
-pain and burning sensation of the mouth and the throat,
-irritation of the gastro-intestinal system,
-blackening of the skin and mucous membranes,
-salivation,
-black colored vomiting,
-loose stools,
-anuria,
-blood pressure fall,
-shock, collapse,
-convulsions,
-death.

V-Chronic Effects :
Inhalation, ingestion or cutaneous contact : argyria (gray-blue colouring of the skin, the mucous membranes and the eyes).
Inhalation : possibility of chronic bronchitis.

VI-Aggravation of Preexisting Conditions :
People with skin, eye and respiratory preexisting conditions can be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.

VII-Pregnancy :

Effects on development :
No data concerning antenatal development was found in the consulted documentary sources, except in the animal (the hard shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria, 1974)
Effects on reproduction :
No data in humans concerning reproduction was found in the consulted documentary sources.
Effects on breast milk :
There is no data concerning its excretion or detection in breast milk.

VIII-Cancerogenic Effects :
No data concerning a cancerogenic effect was found in the consulted documentary sources.

IX-Mutagenic Effects :
No data concerning a mutagenic in vivo or in vitro effect on cells of mammals was found in the consulted documentary sources.

First aid :

I-Eyes :
Rinse eyes with plenty of water for 15 minutes, raising the eyelids occasionally.
Consult a doctor immediately.
II-Skin :
Wash skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.
Consult a doctor immediately.
Wash well clothing and shoes before re-use.
III-Inhalation :
In the event of inhalation of vapors or dust, bring the person into a ventilated place. If he does not breathe, give him artificial respiration. If he breathes with difficulty, give him oxygen.
Call a doctor immediately.
IV-Ingestion :
In the event of ingestion, give water, do not induce vomiting.
Call a doctor immediately.
Never give anything by the mouth to an unconscious person.

Ecological Information :
 
I-Environmental Fate :
No available information.
II-Environmental Toxicity :
No available information.

Quebec's Exposure Limit :
 
Valeur d'Exposition Moyenne Pondérée (V.E.M.P) :
0,01 mg/m³ (expressed as Ag).

References :
 
1-Occupational Medicine,Carl Zenz, last edition.
2-Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures, Sullivan & Krieger; last edition.
3-Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Lewis C., last edition.
4-Toxicologie Industrielle et Intoxications Professionnelles, Lauwerys R.R. last edition.
5-Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, Proctor & Hughes, 4th edition
6-Répertoire Toxicologique, CSST-Quebec
7-Espimetals, MSDS, S. Dierks, 1997
8-Quantyka, MSDS, Sep. 2004
9-J.T Baker, MSDS, 10/08/2004

Related Information

Links

Materials Silver Nitrate
Materials Silver Carbonate
Materials Silver Oxide
Typecodes Article by Edouard Bastarache
Edouard Bastarache is a well known doctor that has written many articles on the subject of toxicity of ceramic materials and books on technical aspects of ceramics. He writes in both English and French.
People Edouard Bastarache

By Edouard Bastarache


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