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Thallium Oxide Toxicology

Introduction :

Formula : Tl2O3
CAS # : 1314-32-5
Insoluble in water.

Uses :
Thallium oxide has been used to produce glasses with a high index of refraction.

Toxicology :

I-Routes of Entry :
Inhalation,
Skin,
Ingestion.

II-Effects of Exposure :
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance
is not fully known.
Oral Lethal Dose Fifty (LD50) = 44 mg/kg (rat)
The main symptoms of thallium poisoning are peripheral neuropathy and loss of hair.

A-Acute Effects :
-paresthesias,
-ataxia,
-alopecia,
-fever,
-coryza,
-abdominal pain,
-nausea,
-vomiting,
-lethargy,
-speech disorders,
-tremors,
-cyanosis,
-convulsions,
-pulmonary oedema,
-bronchopneumonia,
-kidney, liver and brain damage,
-death.

B-Chronic Effects :
-alopecia,
-salivation,
-blue line on the gums,
-gastrointestinal, endocrine system and kidney damage .

C-Inhalation :
Inhalation of thallium will cause irritation of mucous membranes and the respiratory tract. Can cause pulmonary edema.

D-Ingestion :
Ingestion of thallium compounds can cause the effects described above.

E-Skin :
Strong skin irritant. Skin contact may cause dermatitis on first contact.
Thallium compounds can be absorbed through the skin to cause effects described above.

F-Eye :
Strong eye irritant.

G-Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure :
Lung disorders, liver and kidney damage.

Pregnancy :

Thallium poisoning during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause skeletal deformations, alopecia, low birth weight and premature birth.

Carcinogenicity :

Thallium oxide is not considered carcinogenic by most of official bodies.

Emergency and First Aid Procedures :

I-General Information :
Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product.
Remove breathing apparatus only after contaminated clothing has been completely removed.
In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration
II-Inhalation :
Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
III-Ingestion :
Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help.
Seek immediate medical advice.
IV-Skin :
Brush off material, wash affected area thoroughly with soap and water, and wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Seek medical advice.
V-Eyes :
Flush with copious amounts of water, including under eyelids, for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention.

Reactivity Data :

I-Stability :
Stable
II-Conditions to Avoid :
Moisture
III-Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid) :
Acids
IV-Hazardous Decomposition Products :
Toxic thallium fumes.
V-Hazardous Polymerization :
Will not occur.

Spill or Leak Procedures :
I-Steps to Be Taken in Case Material Is Released or Spilled :
Isolate area, wear appropriate protective equipment. Carefully scoop
up material, vacuum powder using HEPA filter, avoid raising dust. Thoroughly clean spill area.
II-Waste Disposal Method :
Dispose of in accordance with State, Federal and Local regulations.

Special Protection Information :

I-General Protective and Hygienic Measures :
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Store protective clothing separately.
II-Respiratory Protection (Specify Type) :
NIOSH approved full face respirator with high efficiency filters.
III-Ventilation :
Use local exhaust to maintain concentration at low exposure levels. General exhaust is not recommended.
IV-Protective Gloves :
Neoprene or nitrile protective gloves
V-Eye Protection :
Approved non-vented safety goggles
VI-Other Protective Equipment :
Protective clothing to prevent skin contact or clothing contamination.

Handling and Storage :

I-Handling :
A-Information for Safe Handling :
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
Open and handle container with care.
B-Information about Protection against Explosions and Fires :
The product is not flammable

II-Storage :
A-Requirements to be Met by Storerooms and Receptacles :
No special requirements.
B-Information about Storage in One Common Storage Facility :
Do not store together with acids.
C-Further Information about Storage Conditions :
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Store under lock and key and with access restricted to technical experts or their assistants only.

Ecological Information :

General Note :
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.

Special Precautions :

Precautions to Be Taken in Handling and Storage :
Wash thoroughly after handling, keep container closed, thallium compounds
are extremely poisonous, avoid all contact.

Disclaimer :
The above information is believed to be correct, but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide.
The author shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.

References :
1-Occupational Medicine,Carl Zenz, last edition.
2-Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures, Sullivan & Krieger; last edition.
3-Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Lewis C., last edition.
4-Toxicologie Industrielle et Intoxications Professionnelles, Lauwerys R.R. last edition.
5-Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, Proctor & Hughes, 4th edition
6- Alfa Aesar, A Johnson Matthey Company, MSDS, Thallium Oxide, June 2004

Related Information

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Typecodes Article by Edouard Bastarache
Edouard Bastarache is a well known doctor that has written many articles on the subject of toxicity of ceramic materials and books on technical aspects of ceramics. He writes in both English and French.
People Edouard Bastarache

By Edouard Bastarache


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