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Alumina Toxicology | Ammonia and Latex Toxicity | Antimony Oxide | Arsenic Oxide | Asbestos: A Difficult-to-Repace Material | Ball Clay | BARIUM and COMPOUNDS / Toxicology | Barium Carbonate | Bentonite Toxicity | Beryllium Monoxide Toxicology | Bismuth Trioxide Toxicology | Boron Compounds and Their Toxicity | Brown Stain | Cadmium Toxicity | Calcium Carbonate Toxicology | Carbon Monoxide Toxicity | Cesium Toxicology | Chromium Compounds Toxicology | Cobalt Oxide and Carbonate | Cobalt Toxicology | Copper Compounds Toxicology | Copper Oxide and Carbonate | Cristobalite Toxicity | Cryolite and Ceramics | Dealing With Dust in Ceramics | Diatomaceous Earth Toxicology | Dioxins in Clays | Epsom Salts | Eye Injuries Due to Radiation | Feldspar | Fighting Micro-Organisms in Ceramics | Fluorine Gas | Gallium Oxide Toxicology | Hafnium Oxide Toxicty | Hydrofluoric Acid Toxicity | Iron oxide and Hematite | Kaolin Toxicity | Lead Chromate | Lead in Ceramic Glazes: What Did We Learn? | | Lead Toxicology | Lithium Carbonate Toxicity | Lithium Toxicology | Man-Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) Toxicology | Man-Made Vitreous Fibers Safety Update | Manganese and Parkinsons by Jane Watkins | Manganese in Clay Bodies | Manganese Inorganic Compounds Toxicology | Manganese Toxicity by Elke Blodgett | Manganese: Creativity and Illness by Dierdre O'Reilly | Molybdenum Compounds Toxicology | Nickel Compounds Toxicity | Niobium Oxide Toxicity | Occupational Dermatoses | Overview of Material Safety by Gavin Stairs | Paraffin Toxicology | Perlite Toxicity | Plant Ash Toxicity | Potassium Carbonate Toxicity | Pregnancy and Ceramics | Propane Toxicology | Quartz Toxicity | Quartz Toxicity on Clayart | Rare Earth Compounds Toxicity | Rubidium and Cesium Toxicology | Rutile Toxicology | Silicosis and Screening | Silver Compounds Toxicology | Sodium Azide Toxicology | Sodium Carbonate Toxicology | Sodium Silicate Powder Toxicology | Stannous Chloride Toxicity | Strontium Carbonate Toxicity Note | Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity | Talc Hazards Overview | Talc Toxicology | Thallium Oxide Toxicology | The Use of Barium in Clay Bodies | Thorium Dioxide Toxicity | Tin Inorganic Compounds | Titanium Dioxide Toxicology | Toxicological Assessment of Zeolites | Tungsten Compounds Toxicology | Understanding Acronyms on MSDS's | Uranium and Ceramics | Vanadium and Compounds Toxicology | Zinc Compounds Toxicology | Zirconium Compounds Toxicity | Zirconium Encapsulated Stains Toxicity

Lead in Frits: The Hazards

Lead has been used in ceramics for thousands of years because it works so well, that is, leaded glazes melt at low temperatures, have low thermal expansion, dazzling colors and tolerance to variable firing. Frits are a modern development that have dramatically improved the safety with which the material can be handled. Notwithstanding this, leaded frits are difficult to obtain in recent years.

Generally most leaded frits were thought be fairly insoluble and safe to use as raw powdered materials, however recent findings about the disproportionately large effects of low lead levels call this into question. In addition, the glazes they produce will be as leachable for a given lead percentage as if the lead came from raw lead carbonate or lead oxide. There is a huge range of lead content in frits, some may have 1%, others 80%. To create a safe leaded glaze you need equipment to measure leaching of lead and expertise in ceramic chemistry to find the oxide profiles that release the least amount of lead.

Therefore we are no describing any safer ways to use lead here. Please check the reference links on this page.

Related Information


Materials Lead Carbonate
Materials Ferro Frit 3300
Materials Ferro Frit 3481
Materials Ferro Frit 3493
Materials Ferro Frit 3497
Materials Ferro Frit 3386
Materials Ferro Frit 3482
Materials Ferro Frit 3496
Materials Pemco Frit P-83
Materials Lead Monosilicate Frit
Materials Pemco Frit Pb-83
Materials General Frit GF-42
Materials Ferro Frit 3548
Materials Antimonate Of Lead
Materials Lead Bisilicate Frit
Materials Pemco Frit Pb-316
Materials Ferro Frit 3327
Materials Ferro Frit 3470
Materials Ferro Frit 3490
Materials Ferro Frit 3600
Materials General Frit GF-9
Materials Hommel Frit 240
Materials Ferro Frit 3304
Materials Ferro Frit 3403
Materials Ferro Frit 3489
Hazards Lead Toxicology
Hazards Lead in Ceramic Glazes: What Did We Learn?
The long slow death of lead use in ceramics taught us some lessons. Manufacturers who still use acid tests to determine glaze toxicity risk liability.
Projects Frits
Glossary Lead in Ceramic Glazes
Lead is a melter in ceramic glazes and performs exceptionally well. However recent findings show it to be even more environmentally pervasive and toxic at low levels than originally thought

By Tony Hansen

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