Modification Date: 2019-06-04 15:10:37
High fluid melt glaze for reactive effects and super gloss colors
|Ferro Frit 3110||31.1||31.1%|
|Ferro Frit 3134||6.6||6.6%|
The copper and tin to produce the turquoise celadon effect are not included in the recipe shown (you need to add 2% copper carbonate, 2.5% tin oxide).
This recipe was the product of a series of tests to determine the best direction for a brilliant fluid-melt transparent base glaze for copper blues and greens. Once I selected a specific recipe (Panama Blue), I removed the colorants and made adjustments to improve its slurry properties and lower the thermal expansion to stop crazing. This type of base glaze is needed because more stable transparents lose their gloss on brown bodies and when certain colorants are added. Fluid melt base glazes also produce much more interesting visual effects. But of course, they have a down sides: they can run off the ware onto the shelf if too thick! And they have an inherently higher thermal expansion so crazing is more of an issue (but it is not impossible to solve as you will see here).
As noted, this recipe is just the base, it does not have the copper and tin to make the green color. We recommend using Copper Oxide, between 1 and 1.5% (depending on the intensity of color desired).
While the previous version, B, did not craze in my tests, its calculated thermal expansion was high enough to be a cause for concern. This adjustment lowers the expansion further while keeping the same brilliant visual appearance. Two materials have also been eliminated from the recipe (their oxides supplied by the others). The chemistry of this one has reduced high-expansion KNaO and increased low-expansion MgO. This makes it melt a little less, but visually it is the same. The higher ZnO seems to help melt the extra SiO2 I also added. As a result the calculated thermal expansion has gone from 7.7 down to 7.3.
If this crazes on your clay body then consider trying a body that has a higher percentage of silica (25% would be good). It is likely possible to adjust the recipe of this glaze to hang on to the fluidity while having a lower thermal expansion, but I have not done that. It crazes on Plainsman P300, M370 but appears to be OK on Polar Ice.
This is not just a typical transparent cone 6 glaze with 2% copper carbonate added (and 2.5% tin oxide). Knowing what is different about this clear base, its trade-offs and how it was developed are important. The porcelains are Plainsman P300 and M370. The liner glossy glaze is G2926B, it has a much lower melt fluidity than the outer glaze, G3806C (as a functional transparent its main job is to fit the body and be hard and durable). But in order for that outer glaze to accommodate the copper and still be super glossy it must have a much higher melt fluidity. It was tricky to develop since that fluidity comes with high sodium and lower silica, that raises the thermal expansion and moves it toward crazing.
The first glaze is a control, a standard non-fluid clear with copper. The other three are the short-listed ones in my project to find a good copper blue recipe starting recipe and fix its problems (which they all have). The GLFL testers for melt flow at the back and the GBMF test melt-down-balls in front contain 1% copper carbonate. The glazed samples in the front row have 2% copper carbonate. L3806B, an improvement on the Panama Blue recipe, has the best color and the best compromise of flow and bubble clearing ability.
These two glazes are both brilliant glass-like super-transparents. But on this high-iron stoneware only one is working. Why? G3806C (on the outside of the piece on the left) melts more, it is fluid and much more runny. This melt fluidity gives it the capacity to pass the micro-bubbles generated by the body during firing. G2926B (right) works great on porcelain but it cannot clear the clouds of micro-bubbles coming out of this body. Even the glassy smooth surface has been affected. The moral: You need two base transparents in which to put your colors, opacifiers and variegators. Reactive glazes need melt fluidity to develop those interesting surfaces. But they are more tricky to use and do not fire as durable.
G3806C has been our recommended base recipe for reactive glazes (by the addition of colorants and opacifiers). It excels for copper blues, for example. But its thermal expansion is high enough that it crazes on some bodies (e.g. Plainsman P300). To adjust it (via glaze chemistry) I introduced some low expansion Li2O (from Spodumene) at the expense of high expansion KNaO, this dropped the calculated COE from 7.1 to 6.6. The melt fluidity, shown here at cone 6 (its most important feature), is exactly the same. The color is bluer. But not as dark, so copper oxide might be better. Or a higher percentage of copper carbonate. The base recipe (without the copper and tin) is potentially very valuable to create other reactive effects that depend on melt mobility. Why? Because it is very difficult to create a high gloss melt fluid glaze that also has a low thermal expansion.
I am comparing 6 well known cone 6 fluid melt base glazes and have found some surprising things. The top row are 10 gram GBMF test balls of each melted down onto a tile to demonstrate melt fluidity and bubble populations. Second, third, fourth rows show them on porcelain, buff, brown stonewares. The first column is a typical cone 6 boron-fluxed clear. The others add strontium, lithium and zinc or super-size the boron. They have more glassy smooth surfaces, less bubbles and would should give brilliant colors and reactive visual effects. The cost? They settle, crack, dust, gel, run during firing, craze or risk leaching. In the end I will pick one or two, fix the issues and provide instructions.
This is the winner of a five-way cone 6 copper blue glaze comparison that started with my dissatisfaction with Panama blue. When I compared these glazes I did not just eyeball them on a tile. I compared the melt flow, thermal expansion and slurry performance of the bases (without the copper and tin). Ball-melt GBMF tests also showed bubble and color development for very thick sections. Then I tried more copper and did more flow tests. I also did leaching tests. Where needed I adjusted recipes to increase clay content (while maintaining chemistry) so the slurries would work better. Without my account at insight-live.com to keep all of this organized it would have been so much more difficult, actually, I probably would not even have bothered with the project. The final recipe, G3806C, was an adjustment to reduce the thermal expansion of this one.
Crystallization (also called devritrification). You can see the tiny crystals on the surface of this copper stained cone 6 glaze (G3806C). The preferred orientation of oxides in crystalline, especially when metal oxides are present. When kilns cool quickly there is simply no time for oxides in an average glaze to organize themselves and crystals do not grow. But if the glaze has a fluid melt and it cools slowly through the temperature at which the crystals like to form, they will.
The outer green glaze on these cone 6 porcelain mugs has a high melt fluidity. The liner glaze on the lower one, G2926B, is high gloss but not highly melt fluid. Notice that it forms a fairly crisp boundary with the outer glaze at the lip of the mug. The upper liner is G3806C, a fluid melt high gloss clear. The outer and inner glazes bleed together completely forming a very fuzzy boundary.
These porcelain mugs were decorated with the same underglazes (applied at leather hard), then bisque fired, dipped in clear glaze and fired to cone 6. While the G2926B clear glaze (left) is a durable and a great super glossy transparent for general use, its melt fluidity is not enough to clear the micro-bubbles generated by the underglazes. G3806C (right) has a more fluid melt and is a much better choice to transmit the underglaze colors. But I still applied G2926B on the inside of the mug on the right, it has a lower thermal expansion and is less likely to craze.
These GLFL tests and GBMF tests for melt-flow compare 6 unconventionally fluxed glazes with a traditional cone 6 moderately boron fluxed (+soda/calcia/magnesia) base (far left Plainsman G2926B). The objective is to achieve higher melt fluidity for a more brilliant surface and for more reactive response with colorant and variegator additions (with awareness of downsides of this). Classified by most active fluxes they are: G3814 - Moderate zinc, no boron G2938 - High-soda+lithia+strontium G3808 - High boron+soda (Gerstley Borate based) G3808A - 3808 chemistry sourced from frits G3813 - Boron+zinc+lithia G3806B - Soda+zinc+strontium+boron (mixed oxide effect) This series of tests was done to choose a recipe, that while more fluid, will have a minimum of the problems associated with such (e.g. crazing, blistering, excessive running, susceptibility to leaching). As a final step the recipe will be adjusted as needed. We eventually chose G3806B and further modified it to reduce the thermal expansion.
The top base glaze has just enough melt fluidity to produce a brilliant transparent (without colorant additions). However it does not have enough fluidity to pass the bubbles and heal over from the decomposition of this added copper carbonate! Why is lower glaze passing the bubbles? How can it melt better yet have 65% less boron? How can it not be crazing when the COE calculates to 7.7 (vs. 6.4)? First, it has 40% less Al2O3 and SiO2 (which normally stiffen the melt). Second, it has higher flux content that is more diversified (it adds two new ones: SrO, ZnO). That zinc is a key to why it is melting so well and why it starts melting later (enabling unimpeded gas escape until then). It also benefits from the mixed-oxide-effect, the diversity itself improves the melt. And the crazing? The ZnO obviously pushes the COE down disproportionately to its percentage.
Wrong. It is the one on the right. While the copper looks so much better in that fluid one on the left, that melt mobility comes at a cost: blisters. As a clear glaze it is no glossier than the other one, but it runs into thicker zones at the bottom and they blister. This is because the high mobility coupled with the surface tension blows bubbles as gases of decomposition travel through (in a normal cooling kiln they break low enough that mobility is insufficient to heal them). The fired glass in the one on the left is also not as hard, it will be more leachable, it will also craze more easily and be more susceptible to boron-blue devritrification. But as a green? Yes it is better.
Fired at cone 6. A melt fluidity comparison (behind) shows the G3808A clear base is much more fluid. While G2926B is a very good crystal clear transparent by itself (and with some colorants), with 2% added copper oxide it is unable to heal all the surface defects (caused by the escaping gases as the copper decomposes). The G3808A, by itself, is too fluid (to the point it will run down off the ware onto the shelf during firing). But that fluidity is needed to develop the copper blue effect (actually, this one is a little more fluid that it needs to be). Because copper blue and green glazes need fluid bases, strategies are needed to avoid them running off the ware. That normally involves thinner application, use on more horizontal surfaces or away from the lower parts of verticals.
Out Bound Links
Knowing about thixotropy enables you to mix non-gummed glazes that stay in suspension much better. But it is not only about staying suspended. While some glazes do not settle out they that have a slurry that behaves like a bucket of motor oil, silky smooth but they just drip and drip and drip. Thixo...
Surface tension is of concern in ceramics because the behavior of a molten glaze is affected by this phenomenon. Glazes with low surface tension spread over the body surface and shed bubbles well. Glazes with high surface tension resist spreading out, resist releasing bubbles and can crawl. Surface ...
A step-by-step process to put a liner glaze in a mug that meets in a perfect line with the outside glaze at the rim.
In Bound Links
A base transparent glaze recipe created by Tony Hansen for Plainsman Clays, it fires high gloss and ultra clear with low melt mobility.
2014-02-06 - A cone 6 transparent general purpose base recipe developed at Plainsman Clays by Tony Hansen (see link to go there below, it contains technical and mi...
'Gloss' refers to how shiny and light-reflective a glaze is. Glazes high in glass former (SiO2, B2O3) are glossy. Those high in Al2O3 tend to be matte. Fluid glazes can crystallize to a matte surface if cooled slowly or a glossy surface if cooled quickly. The SiO2:Al2O3 ratio is taken as a general i...
This Plainsman Cone 6 Ravenscrag Slip base is just the pure material with 20% added frit to make it melt to a glossy natural clear.
2003-07-21 - This is the base cone 6 Ravenscrag recipe, it fires as a transparent glossy. It has an addition of the most common North American borate frit, enough ...
The term 'limit formula' historically has typically referred to efforts to establish absolute ranges for mixtures of oxides that melt well at an intended temperature and are not in sufficient excess to cause defects. These formulas typically show ranges for each oxide commonly used in a specific gla...
A base glaze is one having no opacifiers, variegators or colorants. Thus it should be transparent if glossy and translucent if matte. Developing or adapting a base glaze for your ware is a very important first step in developing a manufacturing process that produces good quality. In fact, from a qua...
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<recipeline material="Silica" amount="26.300" added="0"/>
<recipeline material="Kaolin" amount="19.700" added="0"/>
<recipeline material="Dolomite" amount="8.700" added="0"/>
<recipeline material="Strontium Carbonate" amount="4.400" added="0"/>
<recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3110" amount="31.100" added="0"/>
<recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3134" amount="6.600" added="0"/>
<recipeline material="Zinc Oxide" amount="3.300" added="0"/>
<url url="https://digitalfire.com/4sight/recipes/cone_6_clear_fluid-melt_clear_base_glaze_125.html" descrip="Recipe page at digitalfire.com"/>
By Tony Hansen