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Al2O3 | B2O3 | BaO | C | CaO | CO2 | CoO | Cr2O3 | Cu2O | CuO | Fe2O3 | FeO | H2O | | Li2O | LOI | MgO | MnO | MnO2 | Na2O | NiO | O | Organics | P2O5 | PbO | SiO2 | SnO2 | SO3 | SO4 | SrO | TiO2 | V2O5 | ZnO | ZrO | ZrO2

Ag2O | AlF3 | As2O3 | As4O6 | Au2O3 | BaF2 | BeO | Bi2O3 | CaF2 | CdO | CeO2 | Cl | CO | CrO3 | Cs2O | CuCO3 | Dy2O3 | Er2O3 | Eu2O3 | F | Fr2O | Free SiO2 | Ga2O3 | GdO3 | GeO2 | HfO2 | HgO | Ho2O3 | In2O3 | IrO2 | KF | KNaO | La2O3 | Lu2O3 | Mn2O3 | MoO3 | N2O5 | NaF | Nb2O5 | Nd2O3 | Ni2O3 | OsO2 | Pa2O5 | PbF2 | PdO | PmO3 | PO4 | Pr2O3 | PrO2 | PtO2 | RaO | Rb2O | Re2O7 | RhO3 | RuO2 | Sb2O3 | Sb2O5 | Sc2O3 | Se | SeO2 | Sm2O3 | Ta2O5 | Tb2O3 | Tc2O7 | ThO2 | Tl2O | Tm2O3 | Trace | U3O8 | UO2 | WO3 | Y2O3 | Yb2O3

K2O (Potassium Oxide)


Co-efficient of Linear Expansion0.331
Frit Softening Point707C (From The Oxide Handbook)
Dry M.O.R. (50% Silica)398C


-Together with sodium and lithium oxides, it is classified as one of the Alkaline group. Colored glazes whose flux portion is alkaline-dominated tend to be visually intense, especially if the alumina is low.

-K2O is considered together with sodium, since the two almost always occur together and have very similar properties. When taken together the two are often labeled KNaO. K2O generally promotes higher melt viscosity than Na2O.

-It is an important auxiliary flux in high temperature glazes.

-It is a heavy oxide and in general hosts the brightest colors of all fluxes except for lead. It is usually preferred even to soda for a more brilliant glossy glaze and longer firing range. Very good colored glazes can be made in K2O-PbO-SiO2 dominant formulas.

-Considered a very stable and predictable oxide.

-Like sodium, it has a very high expansion, this tends to contribute to crazing in higher amounts, but not quite as bad as sodium. Thus high alkali glazes almost always craze. If the color depends on this (i.e. copper blue), then it may be necessary to adjust the body to eliminate crazing (since a reduction of the alkalis to reduce crazing will mean a loss of color).

-The alkalis can increase lead solubility.


Materials Cornwall Stone
Materials Sylvite
Materials Pearl Ash
Materials Pearl Ash Calcined
Materials Frit
Materials Nepheline Syenite
Materials Potash Feldspar
Glossary Flux
Fluxes are the reason we can fire clay bodies and glazes in common kilns, they make glazes melt and bodies vitrify at lower temperatures.
Glossary Ceramic Oxide
In glaze chemistry, the oxide is the basic unit of formulas and analyses. Knowledge of what materials supply an oxide and of how it affects the fired glass or glaze is a key to control.
Glossary Alkali
Minerals K-Feldspar
Minerals Feldspar
Oxides Na2O - Sodium Oxide, Soda
Oxides KNaO - Potassium/Sodium Oxides


Glaze ColorAlkaline glazes with barium and small amounts of Mn can produce pink.
Glaze ColorReduction tenmoku black-rust glazes with 8-10% iron work well in high potash glazes.
Glaze Color0.5-1.0% iron in potassium reduction glazes may give delicate blue to blue green.
Glaze ColorCopper red reduction glazes are best in formulations with high alkali. The presence of boron can give a more pleasant red.
Glaze ColorOxidation copper blues work best in high alkaline, low alumina glazes. Increasing copper to 4-6% will move color toward turquoise.
Glaze ColorCobalt blues can be very intense in alkali glazes (up to 2% cobalt).
Glaze ColorAlkaline dominant glazes will produce violet, purple, burgundy, red blue using manganese dioxide to 2%.

By Tony Hansen

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