Al2O3 | B2O3 | BaO | C | CaO | CO2 | CoO | Cr2O3 | Cu2O | CuO | Fe2O3 | FeO | H2O | K2O | Li2O | LOI | MgO | MnO | MnO2 | Na2O | NiO | O | Organics | P2O5 | PbO | SiO2 | SnO2 | SO3 | SO4 | SrO | TiO2 | V2O5 | ZnO | ZrO | ZrO2Others
Ag2O | AlF3 | As2O3 | As4O6 | Au2O3 | BaF2 | BeO | Bi2O3 | CaF2 | CdO | CeO2 | Cl | CO | CrO3 | Cs2O | CuCO3 | Dy2O3 | Er2O3 | Eu2O3 | F | Fr2O | Free SiO2 | Ga2O3 | GdO3 | GeO2 | HfO2 | HgO | Ho2O3 | In2O3 | IrO2 | KF | KNaO | La2O3 | Lu2O3 | Mn2O3 | MoO3 | N2O5 | NaF | Nb2O5 | Nd2O3 | Ni2O3 | OsO2 | Pa2O5 | PbF2 | PdO | PmO3 | PO4 | Pr2O3 | PrO2 | PtO2 | RaO | Rb2O | Re2O7 | RhO3 | RuO2 | Sb2O3 | Sb2O5 | Sc2O3 | Se | SeO2 | Sm2O3 | Ta2O5 | Tb2O3 | Tc2O7 | ThO2 | Tl2O | Tm2O3 | U3O8 | UO2 | WO3 | Y2O3 | Yb2O3
|GSPT - Frit Softening Point||2257-2427C (From The Oxide Handbook)|
Glaze Color - PURPLE
Chrome-tin pinks move toward purple in glazes with significant boron. One glaze with 3.3 SiO2, 0.27 Al2O3, 0.2 B2O3, 0.15 Li2O, 0.5 CaO, 0.1 MgO, 0.15 Na2O employed 5% tin oxide, 0.6% cobalt carbonate, 0.17% chrome oxide to produce a good purple at cone 6.
Glaze Color - Green
Chrome is a classic green colorant for recipes in oxidation and reduction at all temperatures. However, the shades it produces can be opaque, dull, and uninteresting. In the presence of CaO, the color moves toward grass green.
Glaze Color - Green Peacock
Drab chrome greens can be moved toward peacock green with the addition of cobalt oxide (1% each gives bright color, some MgO needed also). This works in zinc free boron and soda glazes.
Glaze Color - Brown
Chrome in zinc glazes tends to form the stable crystalline compound, zinc chromate (ZnCr2O4). which is brown.
Glaze Color - Black
Chrome is a constituent in almost all black oxidation colors. It is used up to 40% in Cr-Co-Fe blacks and as high as 65% in Cu-Cr blacks.
Glaze Color - Pink to Maroon
Chrome and tin are a widely used combination to produce pinks in zinc free glazes with at least 10% CaO and low MgO (alkaline glazes work well). Many stains are based on this system and typically have around 20-30 times as much tin oxide as chrome oxide. Tin would typically be around 4-5%.
Glaze Color - Red Chinese
Below 950C in high lead, low alumina glazes, chrome will produce reds to ranges, often with a crystalline surface. The addition of soda will move the color toward yellow.
Glaze Color - Yellow
Chrome in high lead glazes forms yellow lead chromate. Alkalies are recommended in the base glaze. Added zinc can extend the range to orange.
In other types of glazes, less than 0.5% chrome oxide will give yellowish or yellow green tints.
Metallic oxides with 50% Ferro frit 3134 in crucibles at cone 6ox. Chrome and rutile have not melted, copper and cobalt are extremely active melters. Cobalt and copper have crystallized during cooling, manganese has formed an iridescent glass.
All common traditional ceramic base glazes are made from only a dozen elements (plus oxygen). Materials decompose when glazes melt, sourcing these elements in oxide form. The kiln builds the glaze from these, it does not care what material sources what oxide (assuming, of course, that all materials do melt or dissolve completely into the melt to release those oxides). Each of these oxides contributes specific properties to the glass. So, you can look at a formula and make a good prediction of the properties of the fired glaze. And know what specific oxide to increase or decrease to move a property in a given direction (e.g. melting behavior, hardness, durability, thermal expansion, color, gloss, crystallization). And know about how they interact (affecting each other). This is powerful. And it is simpler than looking at glazes as recipes of hundreds of different materials (each sources multiple oxides so adjusting it affects multiple properties).
Out Bound Links
Chromium (III) Oxide, Cr2O3, Chromium Oxide
In ceramics color is often a matter of chemistry, that is, the host glaze must be compatible and have a sympathetic chemistry for the stain being added. Chrome-tin stains are a classic example.
The term 'limit formula' historically has typically referred to efforts to establish absolute ranges for mixtures of oxides that melt well at an intended temperature and are not in sufficient excess to cause defects. These formulas typically show ranges for each oxide commonly used in a specific gla...
In Bound Links
By Tony Hansen