Al2O3 | B2O3 | BaO | C | CaO | CO2 | CoO | Cr2O3 | Cu2O | CuO | Fe2O3 | FeO | H2O | K2O | Li2O | LOI | MgO | MnO | MnO2 | Na2O | NiO | O | Organics | P2O5 | PbO | SiO2 | SnO2 | SO3 | SO4 | SrO | TiO2 | V2O5 | ZnO | ZrO | ZrO2


Ag2O | AlF3 | As2O3 | As4O6 | Au2O3 | BaF2 | BeO | Bi2O3 | CaF2 | CdO | CeO2 | Cl | CO | CrO3 | Cs2O | CuCO3 | Dy2O3 | Er2O3 | Eu2O3 | F | Fr2O | Free SiO2 | Ga2O3 | GdO3 | GeO2 | HfO2 | HgO | Ho2O3 | In2O3 | IrO2 | KF | KNaO | La2O3 | Lu2O3 | Mn2O3 | MoO3 | N2O5 | NaF | Nb2O5 | Nd2O3 | Ni2O3 | OsO2 | Pa2O5 | PbF2 | PdO | PmO3 | PO4 | Pr2O3 | PrO2 | PtO2 | RaO | Rb2O | Re2O7 | RhO3 | RuO2 | Sb2O3 | Sb2O5 | Sc2O3 | Se | SeO2 | Sm2O3 | Ta2O5 | Tb2O3 | Tc2O7 | ThO2 | Tl2O | Tm2O3 | U3O8 | UO2 | WO3 | Y2O3 | Yb2O3

•The secret to cool bodies and glazes is a lot of testing.
•The secret to know what to test is material and chemistry knowledge.
•The secret to learning from testing is documentation.
•The place to test, do the chemistry and document is an account at
•The place to get the knowledge is

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Bi2O3 (Bismuth Oxide)

GSPT - Frit Softening Point 817C (From The Oxide Handbook)


-During the 1990's, industry has been under much pressure to discontinue the use of lead compounds. Like lead, bismuth ions are highly deformable and thus a strong flux. Bismuth is a very effective substitute for PbO in frits, providing the same high gloss, flow, 'healing' and 'bubble clearance' characteristics, refractive index, surface tension, viscosity, and resistance to 'aggressive' dishwasher detergents. Bismuth melts lower than lead and thus glazes can be even more fluid. One difference for some to note is that its response to cadmium colorants is different (although using inclusion stains should not be a problem).

-Although we do not have an expansion number for Bi2O3, many people simply use the one for lead.

-Bismuth has been used instead of lead oxide in amounts up to 50% in optical glasses to improve durability and increase the specific gravities and refractive indexes. Arsenic is often used with it to prevent a tendency toward grey coloration.

-Bismuth is the secret to making very low temperature frits and colors, conductive glazes, enamels for metal and on-glaze colors.

-Using very high percentages of Bi2O3, it is possible to make glasses and glazes that melt at temperatures as low as 400C!

Ceramic Oxide Periodic Table

All common traditional ceramic base glazes are made from only a dozen elements (plus oxygen). Materials decompose when glazes melt, sourcing these elements in oxide form. The kiln builds the glaze from these, it does not care what material sources what oxide (assuming, of course, that all materials do melt or dissolve completely into the melt to release those oxides). Each of these oxides contributes specific properties to the glass. So, you can look at a formula and make a good prediction of the properties of the fired glaze. And know what specific oxide to increase or decrease to move a property in a given direction (e.g. melting behavior, hardness, durability, thermal expansion, color, gloss, crystallization). And know about how they interact (affecting each other). This is powerful. And it is simpler than looking at glazes as recipes of hundreds of different materials (each sources multiple oxides so adjusting it affects multiple properties).

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By Tony Hansen

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