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Titanium Dioxide

Anatase, Brookite

Formula: TiO2
Alternate Names: TiO2

OxideAnalysisFormula
TiO2100.00%1.000
Oxide Weight79.90
Formula Weight79.90
If this formula is not unified correctly please contact us.
DENS - Density (Specific Gravity) 4.26
HMOH - Hardness (Moh) 6.5
GSPT - Frit Softening Point 1830C

TiO2 occurs in many silicates in nature, accounting for over 1% of the earth's crust. Thus it is manufactured using a variety of materials and processes.

Although titanium is the strongest white pigment known for many uses, in ceramics the whiteness (and opacity) it imparts to glazes is due to its tendency to crystallize during cooling. While titanium dioxide is used in glazes as an opacifier, it is not as effective and easy-to-use as tin oxide or zircon. It can be used as an additive to enliven (variegate, crystallize) the color and texture of glazes (rutile works in a similar manner). In moderate amounts it encourages strong melts, durable surfaces and rich visual textures.

Titanium is available both as raw and surface treated products. Non-pigmentary grades flow more freely in the dry state. Self opacified enamels are made by adding titanium during smelting to super saturation. Upon firing the enamel, the titanium crystallizes or precipitates to produce the opacity. Titania is also used in dry process enameling on cast iron appliances for its effect on acid resistance, color and texture. In glass, non-pigmentary titanium dioxide increases refractive index, intensifies color.


Mechanisms

Variegating effect of sprayed-on layer of 100% titanium dioxide

Variegating effect of sprayed-on layer of 100% titanium dioxide

The referred to surface is the outside of this large bowl. The base glaze (inside and out) is GA6-D Alberta Slip glaze fired at cone 6 on a buff stoneware. The thinness of the rutile needs to be controlled carefully, the only practical method to apply it is by spraying. The dramatical effect is a real testament to the variegating power of TiO2. An advantage of this technique is the source: Titanium dioxide instead of sourcing TiO2 from the often troublesome rutile.

Thin titanium band sprayed over cone 6 glazes demonstrates crystallization

Thin titanium band sprayed over cone 6 glazes demonstrates crystallization

The first is on GA6-A, the rest are on GA6-C (Alberta slip glazes). The last has been applied too thickly, the brown band is dry and blistered.

Original Container Bag of Titanium Dioxide

Original Container Bag of Titanium Dioxide

Out Bound Links

In Bound Links


By Tony Hansen

XML for Import into INSIGHT

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <material name="Titanium Dioxide" descrip="Anatase, Brookite" searchkey="TiO2" loi="0.00" casnumber="98084-96-9"> <oxides> <oxide symbol="TiO2" name="Titanium Dioxide, Titania" status="" percent="100.000" tolerance=""/> </oxides> </material>


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