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Raw Umber

OxideAnalysisFormula
CaO5.00%0.642
MgO2.00%0.358
Al2O33.00%0.212
SiO213.00%1.559
Fe2O351.00%2.297
MnO13.00%1.321
H2O13.00
Oxide Weight627.01
Formula Weight720.70
If this formula is not unified correctly please contact us.

Raw Umber vs. Burnt Umber

Raw Umber vs. Burnt Umber

These are the same material, however the one on the right has been burnt to 600F. At this surprisingly low temperature the color transforms into a deep redish brown.

Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body

Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body

Black burning bodies are popular with many potters. They are normally manufactured by adding around 10% burnt or raw umber to an existing buff-burning cone 6 stoneware. Umbers are powerful colorants, they have high iron and also contain manganese (the latter being the primary source of the color). But these clays can be troublesome. First, good kiln venting is needed to avoid breathing the dangerous manganese metal vapors. Micro-bubble clouding/gloss-loss in the glazes and blistering/bloating of the bodies are common. But this mug fired perfectly. Why? The umber was added to a cone 10 stoneware instead (and it has fluxed the body to mature at cone 6). The mug has been white engobed on the inside and partway down the outside during leather hard stage. After bisque it was clear glazed on the inside giving a flawless surface (using G2926B) and dipped in GA6-A Alberta Slip base amber-clear. The GA6-A over the black clay produces a very deep, rich, almost black ultra-gloss surface.

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By Tony Hansen

XML for Import into INSIGHT

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <material name="Raw Umber" descrip="" searchkey="" loi="0.00" casnumber=""> <oxides> <oxide symbol="CaO" name="Calcium Oxide, Calcia" status="" percent="5.000" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="MgO" name="Magnesium Oxide, Magnesia" status="" percent="2.000" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="Al2O3" name="Aluminum Oxide, Alumina" status="" percent="3.000" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="SiO2" name="Silicon Dioxide, Silica" status="" percent="13.000" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="Fe2O3" name="Iron Oxide, Ferric Oxide" status="" percent="51.000" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="MnO" name="Manganous Oxide" status="" percent="13.000" tolerance=""/> </oxides> <volatiles> <volatile symbol="H2O" name="Water" percent="13.000" tolerance=""/> </volatiles> </material>


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