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Ravenscrag Slip

Silty fusible low iron clay

OxideAnalysisFormula
CaO8.50%0.571
MgO2.50%0.234
K2O4.10%0.164
Na2O0.50%0.030
TiO20.40%0.019
Al2O315.40%0.569
SiO256.70%3.558
Fe2O31.10%0.026
LOI8.70
SO30.20
Oxide Weight336.43
Formula Weight369.29
If this formula is not unified correctly please contact us.

This material is not typical of any other glaze material currently available. It is a conditioned clay. The base material, which comprises the bulk of the recipe, is a silty clay that couples very good suspension and drying properties with a low firing temperature. This clay is blended with a mix of minerals to produce the chemistry of a middle-of-the road silky cone 10 glaze.

The principle claims-to-fame of Ravenscrag Slip is two fold:

-It is possible to use it 100% to create a silky to glossy glaze at cone 10 because it contains all the feldspar, silica and clay needed and these are supplied in majority from the natural clay.

-It imparts beautiful working properties to the glaze slurry: it suspends it and improves evenness of application, drying speed, reduces shrinkage and enables multi-layering (many of the most beautiful art glaze effects can be achieved by layering one glaze over another).

You can visit www.ravenscrag.com to learn more. The site shows a lot of very interesting glaze formulation work and recipes and comments are recorded on the site. In addition to some of the nice multi-layer effects, you will find one glaze in particular, a blue cone 6, to be quite stunning (it is a worthy successor to floating blue because it lacks its persnickety nature). If you want to dabble in developing your own glazes, Ravenscrag Slip is a great place to start.

One exciting thing that has emerged is that Ravenscrag is at home in high, medium and low fire glazes. At high temperature it can be used as-is with additions of color, opacifier, etc to create glossy and matte glazes. At middle temperature, 20-30% frit seems to work well. At low temperature 50-60% is needed. Frit 3195 at low fire produces a very attractive silky matte surface having a nature that is much more lively than the typical toilet-bowl type low fire glaze we are used to. Ravenscrag also has potential as a tile glaze since it applies well on dry ware.

Plainsman Clays made a change in the Ravenscrag recipe starting with mix number 4288 from May 2002. It now has 10% added calcium carbonate to make it melt better. If you have a material with a code number whose first four digits are lower than this, add 10% whiting to get the same results as on the web site.

You can order a sample of this material at https://digitalfire.com/plainsman/store/store.php

Thermal Expansion of Ravenscrag Slip

COEs are not available for Ravenscrag. Since the material is natural, it contains particles of dozens of different minerals, each particle type has it's own behavior during heat up, and they interact in complex ways that relate to their chemistry, mineralogy and particle size. This is completely unlike a frit where all the particles are non-mineral, they are all a glass of the same chemistry. Understandably, it is practical to measure frit COE with some degree of confidence that as long as the user melts it completely they will get the published COE. But it is not practical with Ravenscrag Slip, it does not melt completely (every particle) unless it has at least some other flux.

The calculated thermal expansion of Ravenscrag slip is not reliable, it is not a glass; the mineralogy of the particles exert influence. Consider, for example, the SiO2. Unlike a frit where this oxide simply exists as a percentage in the glass, in Ravenscrag it exists in the crystal structure of pretty well all the mineral particles, each of these particles exhibits varying resistance to melting that is related to not just the chemistry, but the mineralogy. Thus, while it might calculate to a very low thermal expansion, you likely need not worry about shivering, just do a boiling water:ice water test if you are concerned.

The analysis of this material was changed here in Sept 2013, not because the material changed, but because they switched to an actual assay instead of a calculation of the chemistry (the chemical analysis of one of the ingredients was off).


Alberta and Ravenscrag Slip pure at cone 5 reduction

Alberta and Ravenscrag Slip pure at cone 5 reduction

At cone 5R pure Alberta Slip (left) is beginning to melt and flow down the runway of this tester. It is producing a matte gunmetal surface. Pure Ravenscrag Slip (right) is just starting (it needs frit to develop melt fluidity at this temperature). The iron in the Alberta Slip is melting it because of the reduction atmosphere in the kiln (it does not move like this in oxidation).

Cone 5R mug with GR6-A Ravenscrag glaze

Cone 5R mug with GR6-A Ravenscrag glaze

Ravenscrag Slip at cone 5R and 10R

Ravenscrag Slip at cone 5R and 10R

Cone 5 GR6-A glaze at cone 5R on Plainsman M340 (left) and pure Ravenscrag Slip at cone 10R on H550 (right).

An awesome iron crystal glaze recipe for cone 10R

An awesome iron crystal glaze recipe for cone 10R

This iron crystal glaze is Ravenscrag slip plus 10% iron oxide fired to cone 10R on a buff stoneware (Plainsman H550). Since Ravenscrag slip is a glaze-by-itself at cone 10, it is an ideal base from which to make a wide range of glazes. It has its own website at http://ravenscrag.com. It was originally formulated using Digitalfire Insight software. The project built on the merits of a specific silty clay that was noted to couple very good suspension and drying properties with a low firing temperature. The process involved calculating what minerals needed to be added to it to produce the chemistry of a middle-of-the road silky cone 10 glaze; the product was Ravenscrag Slip.

Ravenscrag Slip transparent and Alberta Slip blue glazes by Tony Hansen

Ravenscrag Slip transparent and Alberta Slip blue glazes by Tony Hansen

The mug is the buff stoneware Plainsman M340. Firing is cone 6. On the inside is the GR6-A Ravenscrag transparent base glaze. The outside glaze is GA6-C Alberta Slip rutile blue on the outside. The transparent, although slightly amber in color compared to a frit-based transparent, does look better on buff burning stoneware bodies this.

Calcining Ravenscrag Slip

Calcining Ravenscrag Slip

This is Ravenscrag Slip, I am going to calcine about 10 pounds of it in this bisque ware vessel to destroy the plasticity. I will fire to 1000F and hold it for 2 hours to make sure the heat penetrates. Why calcine? Because I have found that in some glazes having 70% or more Ravenscrag Slip, cracking on drying can occur if it is applied too thick. I love the working properties of these glazes and want to optimize them to avoid any problems. I am going to mix 75:25 raw:calcine on the next batch of glaze. However, Ravenscrag has an LOI of 9%, so I need to use 9% less of the calcine powder (just multiply the amount by 0.91). Suppose, I needed 1000 grams: I would use 750 raw and 250*.91=227.5.

Flawless Ravenscrag Slip based glazes on a cone 6 stoneware

Flawless Ravenscrag Slip based glazes on a cone 6 stoneware

Plainsman M340 with Ravenscrag clear (inside) and pink glazes at cone 6. These were fired in a larger electric kiln at a slower firing rate, so the glaze has no imperfections. This pink glaze has proven to be very reliable and attractive on many clay bodies, it employs a stain rather than raw chrome and tin oxides.

Fixing a crawling problem with Ravenscrag Tenmoku

Fixing a crawling problem with Ravenscrag Tenmoku

Crawling of a cone 10R Ravenscrag iron crystal glaze. The added iron oxide flocculates the slurry raising the water content, increasing the drying shrinkage. To solve this problem you can calcine part of the Ravenscrag Slip, that reduces the shrinkage. Ravenscrag.com has information on how to do this.

The unexpected reason for this crazing can be seen in the chemistry

The unexpected reason for this crazing can be seen in the chemistry

This liner glaze is 10% calcium carbonate added to Ravenscrag slip. Ravenscrag Slip does not craze when used by itself as a glaze at cone 10R on this body, so why would adding a relatively low expansion flux like CaO make it craze? It does not craze when adding 10% talc. This is an excellent example of the value to looking at the chemistry (the three are shown side-by-side in my account at Insight-live.com). The added CaO pushes the very-low-expansion Al2O3 and SiO2 down by 30% (in the unity formula), so the much higher expansion of all the others drives the expansion of the whole way up. And talc? It contains SiO2, so the SiO2 is not driven down nearly as much. In addition, MgO has a much lower expansion than CaO does.

Plainsman H450 (left) vs. H550 celadon glazed mugs

Plainsman H450 (left) vs. H550 celadon glazed mugs

The inside glaze is pure Ravenscrag Slip and the outside glaze is a 50:50 mix of Ravenscrag and Alberta Slips. Each of the glazes employs an appropriate mix of calcined and raw clay to achieve a balance of good slurry properties, hardening and minimal drying shrinkage. Ravenscrag needs less calcined since it is less plastic than Alberta Slip.

Will this crawl when fired? For sure!

Will this crawl when fired? For sure!

This dry glaze is shrinking too much, it is going to crawl during firing. This common issue happens because there is too much plastic clay in the glaze recipe (common with slip glazes). Clay is needed to suspend the other particles (they would quickly settle to the bottom of the bucket without it), but too much causes excessive shrinkage. Fixing this problem is not nearly as difficult as most people think. You can reduce shrinkage by calcining part of the clay or swapping a clay component for another of similar chemistry but lower shrinkage. The best way: Use glaze chemistry to source some Al2O3 (contributed by the clay) from feldspar instead. Of course this involves juggling amounts of other materials in the recipe to maintain the overall chemistry.

Glaze cracking during drying? Wash it off and change the process or glaze.

Glaze cracking during drying? Wash it off and change the process or glaze.

If your drying glaze is doing what you see on the left, do not smooth it with your finger and hope for the best. It is going to crawl during firing. Wash it off, dry the ware and change your glaze or process. This is Ravenscrag Slip being used pure as a glaze, it is shrinking too much so I simply add some calcined material to the bucket. That reduces the shrinkage and therefore the cracking (trade some of the kaolin in your glaze for calcined kaolin to do the same thing). Glazes need clay to suspend and harden them, but if your glaze has 20%+ kaolin and also bentonite, drop the bentonite (not needed). Other causes: Double-layering. Putting it on too thick. May be flocculating (high water content). Slow drying (try bisquing lower, heating before dipping; or glaze inside, dry it, then glaze outside).

Out Bound Links

In Bound Links


By Tony Hansen

XML for Import into INSIGHT

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <material name="Ravenscrag Slip" descrip="Silty fusible low iron clay" searchkey="" loi="0.00" casnumber="70694-09-6"> <oxides> <oxide symbol="CaO" name="Calcium Oxide, Calcia" status="" percent="8.500" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="MgO" name="Magnesium Oxide, Magnesia" status="" percent="2.500" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="K2O" name="Potassium Oxide" status="" percent="4.100" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="Na2O" name="Sodium Oxide, Soda" status="" percent="0.500" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="TiO2" name="Titanium Dioxide, Titania" status="" percent="0.400" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="Al2O3" name="Aluminum Oxide, Alumina" status="" percent="15.400" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="SiO2" name="Silicon Dioxide, Silica" status="" percent="56.700" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="Fe2O3" name="Iron Oxide, Ferric Oxide" status="" percent="1.100" tolerance=""/> </oxides> <volatiles> <volatile symbol="LOI" name="Loss on Ignition" percent="8.700" tolerance=""/> <volatile symbol="SO3" name="Sulfur Trioxide" percent="0.200" tolerance=""/> </volatiles> </material>


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