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Ferro Frit 3249

Low expansion leadless magnesia borosilicate frit

Alternate Names: F3249 Frit, F3249 (Ferro)

OxideAnalysisFormula
CaO3.50%0.171
MgO12.20%0.829
Al2O313.30%0.357
B2O328.90%1.137
SiO242.10%1.919
Oxide Weight273.88
Formula Weight273.88
If this formula is not unified correctly please contact us.
COLE - Co-efficient of Linear Expansion 4.00
MLRG - Frit Melting Range (C) 1900F

Low expansion frits like this are the most effective way to reduce crazing because they introduce a form of MgO that will melt much lower than MgO-sourcing raw materials. Trading some amount of high expansion fluxes for MgO is the most effective way to reduce glaze thermal expansion, doing so with this as the source of MgO works much better than using talc or dolomite. Also, high MgO is the mechanism of some of the best matte glazes and a frit like this is the best way to source it.

Ferro specifies this as a bonding agent for grinding wheels. However frits are sources of oxides, if a frit supplies the oxides we want and melts well then it is fine regardless of its label. Fusion F-69 has a very similar chemistry, it is labelled a ceramic frit (and it has the lowest expansion of any they make). Notwithstanding that the chemistry of this frit can be inconvenient because it can often oversupply the B2O3 if being used to supply all of the MgO needed.

There is some question about how well Ferro maintains the chemistry of this product (and thus whether it is suitable for ceramics). Some users have found variation in the surface quality of their glazes using this product.



Frits work much better in glaze chemistry

Frits work much better in glaze chemistry

The same glaze with MgO sourced from a frit (left) and from talc (right). The glaze is 1215U. Notice how much more the fritted one melts, even though they have the same chemistry. Frits are predictable when using glaze chemistry, it is more absolute and less relative. Mineral sources of oxides impose their own melting patterns and when one is substituted for another to supply an oxide in a glaze a different system with its own relative chemistry is entered. But when changing form one frit to another to supply an oxide or set of oxides, the melting properties stay within the same system and are predictable.

G1215U vs. G1215W glaze flow test

G1215U vs. G1215W glaze flow test

These recipes have the same chemistry but the 1215U uses frit to source the MgO and CaO. This demonstrates that it is not just chemistry that determines melt flow. Raw materials are crystalline and have different melting patterns than frits (which have already been melted and reground).

Crystallization of Rutile at cone 6 completely subdued? How?

Crystallization of Rutile at cone 6 completely subdued? How?

These glazes are both 80% Alberta Slip, but the one on the right employs 20% Ferro Frit 3249 accelerate the melting (whereas the left one has 20% Frit 3134). Even though Frit 3249 is higher in boron and should melt better, its high MgO stiffens the glaze melt denying the mobility needed for the crystal growth.

Frits do not dissolve in water, right? Wrong.

Frits do not dissolve in water, right? Wrong.

This is an example of two types of crystals that have formed on the surface of a fritted glaze after a long period of storage (Ferro Frit 3249 in this case). Frits are formulated to give chemistries that natural materials cannot supply. To do that they have to push the boundaries of stability (solubility). Any frit that has an inordinately high amount (compared to natural sources) of a specific oxide (in this case MgO) or lacks Al2O3 (like Frit 3134) are suspect.

Do you know the purpose of these common Ferro frits?

Do you know the purpose of these common Ferro frits?

I used a binder to form 10 gram balls and fired them at cone 08 (1700F). Frits melt really well, they do not gas and they have chemistries we cannot get from raw materials (similar ones to these are sold by other manufacturers). These contain boron (B2O3), it is magic, a low expansion super-melter. Frit 3124 (glossy) and 3195 (silky matte) are balanced-chemistry bases (just add 10-15% kaolin for a cone 04 glaze, or more silica+kaolin to go higher). Consider Frit 3110 a man-made low-Al2O3 super feldspar. Its high-sodium makes it high thermal expansion. It works in bodies and is great to incorporate into glazes that shiver. The high-MgO Frit 3249 (for the abrasives industry) has a very-low expansion, it is great for fixing crazing glazes. Frit 3134 is similar to 3124 but without Al2O3. Use it where the glaze does not need more Al2O3 (e.g. it already has enough clay). It is no accident that these are used by potters in North America, they complement each other well. The Gerstley Borate is a natural source of boron (with issues frits do not have).

Low expansion version of cone 6 Alberta Slip amber glaze glaze

Low expansion version of cone 6 Alberta Slip amber glaze glaze

Alberta Slip with 20% added frit 3134 (left) fired to cone 6 on a porcelain. This is the standard GA6-A recipe. On the right 20% frit 3249 has been used instead. That is a low expansion frit so if you have crazing with the standard recipe, consider trying this one.

Five common frits fired at cone 03 (1950F)

Five common frits fired at cone 03 (1950F)

Five common North American Ferro Frits fired at 1850F on alumina tiles (each started as a 10 gram ball and flattened during the firing). At this temperature, the differences in the degree of melting are more evident that at 1950F. The degree of melting corresponds mainly to the percentage of B2O3 present. However Frit 3134 is the runaway leader because it contains no Al2O3 to stabilize the melt. Frit 3110 is an exception, it has low boron but very high sodium.

A Redart cone 03 body shines when it come to ease of glaze fit

A Redart cone 03 body shines when it come to ease of glaze fit

These bowls are fired at cone 03. They are made from 80 Redart, 20 Ball clay. The glazes are (left to right) G1916J (Frit 3195 85, EPK 15), G191Q (Frit 3195 65, Frit 3110 20, EPK 15) and G1916T (Frit 3195 65, Frit 3249 20, EPK 15). The latter is the most transparent and brilliant, even though that frit has high MgO. The center one has a higher expansion (because of the Frit 3110) and the right one a lower expansion (because of the Frit 3249). Yet all of them survived a 300F to icewater test without crazing. This is a testament to the utility of Redart at low temperatures. A white body done at the same time crazed the left two.

Devitrification of a transparent glaze

Devitrification of a transparent glaze

This glaze consists of micro fine silica, calcined EP kaolin, Ferro Frit 3249 MgO frit, and Ferro Frit 3134. It has been ball milled for 1, 3, and 6 hours with these same results. Notice the crystallization that is occurring. This is likely a product of the MgO in the Frit 3249. This high boron frit introduces it in a far more mobile and fluid state than would talc or dolomite and MgO is a matting agent (by virtue of the micro crystallization it can produce). The fluid melt and the fine silica further enhance the effect.

P300 and M370 mugs with GA6A Alberta Slip (using Frit 3249)

P300 and M370 mugs with GA6A Alberta Slip (using Frit 3249)

Rather than the normal 80:20 AlbertaSlip:Frit3134 recipe, this one substitutes Frit 3249 (super low expansion). The glaze is less runny and even glossier on these Plainsman porcelains. They are fired at cone 6 in a cool-and-soak firing. They survived boiling water:ice water tests without crazing (likely because of the low expansion of frit 3249). The finish is dazzling, a brilliant amber glass with no defects and perfectly even coverage. Of course, the iron in the glass prevents the colors of the blue underglaze from showing through. But the black is great.

GA6A Alberta Slip base using Frit 3124, 3249 and 3195 on dark body

GA6A Alberta Slip base using Frit 3124, 3249 and 3195 on dark body

The body is dark brown burning Plainsman M390 (cone 6). The amber colored glaze is 80% Alberta Slip (raw:calcine mix) with 20% of each frit. The white engobe on the inside of two of the mugs is L3954A (those mugs are glazed inside using transparent G2926B). The Alberta Slip amber gloss glaze produces an ultra-gloss surface of high quality on mugs 2 and 3 (Frit 3249 and 3195). On the outside we see it this glaze on the white slip until midway down, then on the bare red clay. The amber glaze on the first mug (with Frit 3124) has a pebbly surface that is not working nearly as well. These mugs are fired using a drop-and-soak firing schedule. Some caution is required with the 3249 version, it has low thermal expansion (that is good on bodies that normally craze glazes, but risks shivering on ones that do not).

GA6A Alberta Slip base using Frit 3249 and 3195 on buff body

GA6A Alberta Slip base using Frit 3249 and 3195 on buff body

The body is buff burning Plainsman M340 (cone 6). The amber colored glaze is 80% Alberta Slip (raw:calcine mix) with 20% of each frit. The white engobe on the inside of mug 1 is L3954A (also glazed inside using transparent G2926B). These frits are producing an amber gloss glaze of high quality. On the outside of mug 1 we see the 3195 version on the white slip until midway down, then on the bare buff clay (the other has the 3249 version). These mugs are fired using a drop-and-soak firing schedule. There is a caution: Frit 3249 has a very low thermal expansion, use it on bodies that craze other glazes (like Plainsman P300), it could shiver on stonewares like this.

Glaze under excessive compression can flake off the engobe

Glaze under excessive compression can flake off the engobe

The amber glaze on the outside of the left mug contains 20% super-low thermal expansion Ferro Frit 3249 as the melter. With no underlying engobe it can form enough of a bond with the body that it does not flake off at the rim (even though it is under excessive compression because its low thermal expansion). This flaking is called "shivering". The engobe, which does not melt like a glaze, has a more fragile bond with the body (and the glaze is pushing enough to make that bond fail). The mug on the right employs 20% Frit 3195 melter instead, producing a glaze that fits better. I hammered both of these rims repeatedly with a metal object to stress them, that one on the right definitely fits better.

Out Bound Links

In Bound Links


By Tony Hansen

XML for Import into INSIGHT

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <material name="Ferro Frit 3249" descrip="Low expansion leadless magnesia borosilicate frit" searchkey="F3249 Frit, F3249 (Ferro)" loi="0.00" casnumber="65997-18-4"> <oxides> <oxide symbol="CaO" name="Calcium Oxide, Calcia" status="" percent="3.500" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="MgO" name="Magnesium Oxide, Magnesia" status="" percent="12.200" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="Al2O3" name="Aluminum Oxide, Alumina" status="" percent="13.300" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="B2O3" name="Boric Oxide" status="" percent="28.900" tolerance=""/> <oxide symbol="SiO2" name="Silicon Dioxide, Silica" status="" percent="42.100" tolerance=""/> </oxides> </material>


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