A high-nepheline, zero-silica cone 8 silky matte glaze is cutlery marking and crazing. Why?
I will show you how found a recipe on Facebook, assessed it, substituted my own materials, tested it, adjusted it. Now it is like a cone 10 dolomite matte.
Using Insight-live I will demonstrate the surprising amount of silica some cone 6 base glazes that appear OK will accept and still melt well.
How to spot out-of-balance indicators in the chemistry of glazes that suggest susceptibility to scratching or cutlery marking.
Raw lithium carbonate can be replaced with a lithium-containing frit if you can do the chemistry. And you can at insight-live.com.
Use Insight-Live.com to do major surgery on a feldspar saturated cone 10R glaze recipe with multiple issues: blistering, pinholing, crazing, settling, dusting and possibly leaching!
We will substitute wollastonite for whiting and a frit for Gerstley borate in G2571A while maintaining the chemistry of the original recipe.
Insight-live shows recipes in tall narrow panels. They open side-by-side right-ward. They remember the type of calculation last requested. So just opening multiple recipes automatically enables comparison.
The test bars will measure fired porosity and shrinkage over a range of temperatures, drying shrinkage, LOI and pugged water content. They follow procedures defined in Insight-live.com.
How to reference a picture from an external website like flickr.com from within a recipe in Insight-live
A short annotated video of how to create an account at insight-live.com
A short annotated video of how to sign-in to a personal account at insight-live.com
How to import the Digitalfire Insight recipe database file (INSIGHTDATA.DB) and the pictures that attach to recipes therein
Using help, your account, renewal and preferences pages, the managers and panels, recipes, materials, entering a recipe, chemistry, downloading desktop Insight.
How to find them, duplicate them and develop them within your account at insight-live.com
If your recipe is on the clipboard, this shows you how to import it into Insight-live and make adjustments after.
Learn how to add a recipe, title it, add lines and change them, set lines to added status, enter notes and pictures and print a mix ticket
An example of how to enter test results from your ceramic testing into recipes in your account at insight-live.com.
How to take a picture using an iPhone, crop and resample it, save it, then upload it to a recipe.
How to import data from desktop Insight, GlazeMaster, Matrix, GlazChem, HyperGlaze, Generic Spreadsheet CSV into your account at insight-live.com.
How to add and override material data and how to do chemistry calculations in your account at insight-live.com.
How to organize your recipes into a worksheet of recipe rows and material columns, save it as a CSV file and import into Insight-Live.com
A tour around the home page. Where to start.
I will show you some secrets of making a base engobe (or slip) apply to leather hard terracotta ware in a thick, perfectly even layer.
I will show you how to glaze a mug with a liner glaze inside and a colored one outside so that they meet in a perfect line at the rim.
To do a drop-and-hold firing you must manually program your kiln controller. It is the secret to surfaces without pinholes and blisters.
I will show you why people love/hate this material and how I substituted it for Ulexite to make a much easier-to-use glaze that fires just as good or better.
Making 10 gram balls of your glaze and firing them on 2in by 2in tiles is a great way to evaluate their flow, surface and susceptibility to defects.
I will show you why thixotropy is so important. Glazes that you have never been able to suspend or apply evenly will work beautifully.
D. Desktop Insight
Part two of a complete tour. It includes using targets, setting calculation types, entering recipe notes and details, SQLite and a review the menus.
Part one of a complete tour. The anatomy of the recipe window, how to open, edit and save recipes; the materials, oxides and supply oxide dialogs, the MDT.
Learn to how to download a recipe library from your account at Insight-live and open and explore it using desktop Insight
Compare calcium carbonate (whiting) with other sources of CaO (dolomite, wollastonite, frit), learn to understand the chemistry differences between materials and then substitute wollastonite for whiting in a specific recipe.
While comparing a real-world and theoretical feldspar learn to enter, edit, save, normalize recipes and the materials dialog. Glaze chemistry concepts.
Learn to compare a target formula with the chemistry of a feldspar. See why it does not make a good glaze by itself and what materials need to be added to make it into a balanced glaze.
Learn to do difficult formula to batch conversions. Learn mole%, finding frits by chemistry, Na2O sourcing, oxide oversupply, recipe line added status, overriding in the Supply dialog, when to compromise an exact match.
Learn to add a native volcanic ash to the INSIGHT materials database (MDT) and then create a glaze from it maximizing its percentage. Learn to impose an LOI on a material and why this method is better than line blending.
Learn to use a non-unity calculation to convert a formula into a batch recipe using theoretical and real-world materials. Retotal, round-off and make a side-by-side report.
Learn to convert a glossy glaze into a matte by comparing its chemistry with a target matte formula. Alter the chemistry in such a way that the thermal expansion does not rise and it maintains good physical application and suspension properties.
Learn what crazing is, how it is related to glaze chemistry, how INSIGHT calculates thermal expansion and how to substitute high expansion oxides (e.g. Na2O, K2O) with lower expansion ones (e.g. MgO, Li2O, B2O3).
Shows four different ways to add materials to the desktop Insight materials database (MDT)
Do this completely outside of Insight, it knows how to read it at each startup.
There are five ways to do it. Generate your MDT at digitalfire.com, copy and paste XML, type in the formula, enter an analysis as a recipe, handle the MDT as a CSV file in Excel.
Wollastonite is 50:50 CaO:SiO2. So why not just substitute 40 wollastonite for 20 calcium carbonate and 20 silica?
Learn to substitute Nepheline Syenite for Soda Feldspar (and vice versa) using the KNaO checkbox to. You will see the benefit of in-recipe substitution calculation rather than making substitution rules.
Learn the chemistry differences between cone 10 and 6 glazes and how to make a glaze melt at a lower temperature without introducing other problems like crazing.
Learn to reformulate a glaze that is settling in the bucket. Al2O3 and KNaO are sourced by the feldspar, we will source them from kaolin and frits instead.
How to use desktop Insight to substitute wollastonite for calcium carbonate (and vice versa) while maintaining the same SiO2 level. Create substitution rules.
Use Desktop Insight to explore ways of calculating substitutes for Gerstley Borate in the popular Floating Blue cone 6 glaze recipe while maintaining or improving the other raw and fired properties of the glaze.
How to fine-tune the thixotropy of a ceramic engobe for pottery
Tony Hansen takes you through all the steps from opening the box and wedging the clay to taking the fired mug from the kiln.
*Youtube Video, +MP4 Video, #ScreenCast, ^URL
Improving Cone 6 Perkins Studio Clear
How I found a recipe on Facebook, substituted a frit for the Gerstley Borate and added the extra silica it needed to fight crazing. I got a fabulous cone 6 clear.
Click here to watch this at youtube.com or click here to go to our Youtube channel
Kill the Gerstley borate. Fix the crazing. These are some of the most common things people do using Insight software. This can be a fantastic clear glaze if you adjust it to stop the crazing and replace the troublesome Gerstley Borate. The glaze ends up being more durable too. This is a video about how I used my account at Insight-Live.com to manage a testing project on this glaze and the surprizing things I learned. Click the Youtube link below to watch the video. Following is an outline transcript outline I used to make it.
This caught my attention on Facebook so decided to test it
-Copied from Facebook: create new recipe, import it, name it, code number it as G2926
GB not linking, fix it.
Mixed 2000 grams (mix ticket)
Glazed a mug and fired it
-It is very transparent, didn't craze out-of-the kiln on my porcelain. Good? Not quite.
Appraise it, its materials:
-Need to kill GB (dont have it, it gives amber to clears, causes blisters, gels slurry)
-Click GB (sources boron, a little MgO)
-Duplicate it, edit the copy, name/code#. Replace the GB with Frit 3134, Save and Done
Where are we?
-KNaO higher, B2O3 lower, MgO gone
-Edit and add a little Talc to source MgO, Save and Done
Juggle the recipe to match the chemistry
-Enter calculation mode, set increment at 0.5, enter MgO,
-Set Increment to 2 and add frit to match B2O3
-Al2O3 low, we can add clay, great! But not yet.
-Reduce Nepheline to match KNaO
-Switch back to 0.5 and correct MgO
-Switch to 2 and add kaolin
-Adjust B2O3 again, then SiO2
-Glazed a mug: good
-A flow test to compare with original GB version (will attach it here)
-Did 300:icewater on a mug, crazed: expansion too high
-Another to compare to a standard I already know. Running too much.
Will accept silica.
Add 10% silica and retotal again
This was tested. Result was excellent
Do white variation (will be harder, flow even less, lower expansion)
-Print recipe for 2000 g
The lessons are:
-Test your glazes thoroughly
-Replace the problem materials
-Make sure they fit your clay
-Keep a good audit trail of your tests, use code numbers and pictures. Do it at insight-live.com.
Improving a clear by substituting frit for Gerstley Borate
Melt fluidity test showing Perkins Studio clear recipe original (left) and a reformulated version that sources the boron from Ferro Frit 3134 instead of Gerstley Borate (right). The later is less amber in color (indicating less iron) and it melts to very close to the same degree.
Use a low silica porcelain to craze test your glazes
Cone 6 transparent glaze testing to fit Plainsman M370: Left and right: Perkins Studio Clear. The far left one is a very thick application. Center: Kittens Clear. The porcelain for all is Plainsman P300. Why? Because P300 is much more likely to craze the glaze because it has a lower silica content (about 17% and only kaolin whereas M370 has 24% silica plus the free quartz that comes with the 20% ball clay it also contains). If a thick layer works on P300 it is a shoe-in to fit M370. If it also passes the oven:icewater test.
How can you test if a different brand of tin oxide will work?
This is a melt fluidity test comparing two different tin oxides in a cone 6 transparent glaze (Perkins Clear 2). The length, character and color of the flow provide an excellent indication of how similar they are.
This cone 6 transparent looked good, but I still improved it alot
The green boxes show cone 6 Perkins Studio Clear (left) beside an adjustment to it that I am working on (right). I am logged in to my account at insight-live.com. In the recipe on the right, code-numbered G2926A, I am using the calculation tools it provides to substitute Frit 3134 for Gerstley Borate (while maintaining the oxide chemistry). A melt-flow GLFL test comparison of the two (bottom left) shows that the GB version has an amber coloration (from its iron) and that it flows a little more (it has already dripped off). The flow test on the upper left shows G2926A flowing beside PGF1 transparent (a tableware glaze used in industry). Its extra flow indicates that it is too fluid, it can accept some silica. This is very good news because the more silica any glaze can accept the harder, more stable and lower expansion it will be. You might be surprised how much it took, yet still melts to a crystal clear. See the article to find out.
An example where adding silica really helps a glaze
The flow on the left is an adjusted Perkins Frit Clear (we substituted frit for Gerstley Borate). It is a cone 6 transparent that appeared to work well. However it did not survive a 300F oven-to-icewater IWCT test without crazing on Plainsman M370. The amount of flow (which increases a little in the frit version) indicates that it is plenty fluid enough to accept some silica. So we added 10% (that is the flow on the right). Now it survives the thermal shock test and still fires absolutely crystal clear.
Do your functional glazes do this? Fix them. Now.
These cone 6 porcelain mugs have glossy liner glazes and matte outers: VC71 (left) crazes, G2934 does not (it is highlighted using a felt marker and solvent). Crazing, while appropriate on non-functional ware, is unsanitary and severely weakens the ware (up to 300%). If your ware develops this your customers will bring it back for replacement. What will you do? The thermal expansion of VC71 is alot higher. It is a product of the chemistry (in this case, high sodium and low alumina). No change in firing will fix this, the body and glaze are not expansion compatible. Period. The fix: Change bodies and start all over. Use another glaze. Or, adjust this recipe to reduce its thermal expansion.
Adding silica will fix crazing, right? Not here.
G2926B (center and right) is a clear cone 6 glaze created by simply adding 10% silica to Perkins Studio clear, a glaze that had a slight tendency delay-craze on common porcelains we use. Amazingly it tolerated that silica addition very well and continued to fire to an ultra gloss crystal clear. That change eliminated the crazing issues. The cup on the right is a typical porcelain that fits most glazes (because it has 24% silica and near-zero porosity). The center one only has 17% silica and zero porosity (that is why it is crazing this glaze). I added 5% more silica to the glaze, it took that in stride, continuing to produce an ultra smooth glossy. It is on cup on the left. But it is still crazing just as much! That silica addition only reduces the calculated expansion from 6.0 to 5.9, clearly not enough for this more severe thermal expansion mismatch. Substituting low expansion MgO for other fluxes will compromise the gloss, so clearly the solution is to use the porcelain on the right.
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