The term Terra Cotta can refer to a process or a kind of clay. Terra cotta clays are high in iron and available almost everywhere. While they vitrify at low temperatures, they are typically fired much lower than that and covered with colorful glazes.
'Terra Cotta' (Italian for 'cooked earth') is red burning earthenware. It has been made for thousands of years by indigenous cultures, most often unglazed. If glazed, high lead content mixtures have been traditional. It is fired at much lower temperatures than stoneware so, not surprisingly, it is not nearly as strong. However fired terra cotta ware has a much better ability to withstand sudden temperature changes without cracking. Other attractions include dramatically lower energy costs, less kiln wear-and-tear in firing it and the ability to achieve brighter colors than at higher temperatures. If covered by a well melted, well adhered uncrazed glaze terra cotta can provide excellent service for functional ware.
Terracotta is often used in industry to make sculptures, tile, planters, garden and architectural ware. When it is glazed ware is often referred to as 'red earthenware' rather than 'terra cotta'. It is no accident that terra cotta fires red (although the actual raw clay can be brown, maroon, green or red). Red burning low-fire clays are available almost everywhere. They are almost always very impure, contaminated by a range of fluxing-bearing minerals and iron oxide (which produces the red fired color). The contaminants act as fluxes, making the material fire much harder than would a mix of white burning clays at the same temperature. Engineers refer to the degree to which a clay has been fired as its "maturity". On a scale of zero (being not fired) to ten (melted), terra cotta is about a four while translucent porcelain is around eight. Bodies that are very mature are said to be 'vitrified'. A measure of fired clay maturity is its amount of pore space (measured by noting the increase in weight of a bar after being boiled in water). Most porcelains have zero porosity while earthenwares fired to cone 04 have about 10% porosity. Terra cottas respond in a non-linear fashion to heating beyond cone 04, densifying and melting much more quickly than you would expect. Many can be warping and blistering by cone 01 and melting by cone 2. That is why cone 04-03 is seen as the sweet-spot, a compromise between strength of higher temperatures and stability of lower ones.
It is possible to create a more dense terra cotta at cone 04-03 by adding non-leaded frits (man made glass powders that melt at low temperatures). With even small additions it is impossible to vitrify a body at these temperatures (unfortunately the increased maturity turns the color to a deep solid brown instead of the traditional warm red). Being careful not to add too much frit it is possible to produce fired ware that rivals stoneware in strength. Of course, more careful control of firing and the formulation and fitting of glazes and slips is required. Rationalization is also needed to determine if the added cost of the body outweighs the reduced cost of firing.
Because terra cotta ware is porous it is very important that the glaze and body thermal expansions match (called "fit"). If they do not, craze lines (cracks in the glaze itself) will develop and enable water to penetrate and absorb into the clay matrix below. The clay-glaze interface is not as well developed (the glaze is not stuck on as well as stoneware). For this reason, base transparent glazes (from which colors are developed) need to be fitted to the body for the specific temperature. 'Fitted' means that they are tested to be thermal expansion compatible, they have been subjected to two tests. The first is where ware heated to 300F (for example) is plunged into ice water to see if it crazes. The second is where ware is taken from a freezer and plunged into boiling water to see if the sudden expansion of the glaze will cause it to flake off of sharp contours.
Hardness and resistance to chipping is also a matter of testing. Glazes need to be well melted and have a chemistry having as much silica and alumina as possible. Lead glazes perform exceptionally well at low temperatures (and are inexpensive), but are not common in developed countries (where boron is used instead as a melter). Notwithstanding this, people in many cultures have eaten from lead glazed earthen cookware and table ware for millenniums and continue to do so to this day. Those glazes contribute greatly to making the ware more durable.
Low temperature glazes host bright and vibrant colors, this is a key reason for the popularity of terra cotta. This is because the source of those colors, metal oxides, do not reach a sufficient temperature to boil away or vaporize. Stains (man made colorant powders) suspend in the glaze melt without melting at all and impart the maximum color they are capable of. However those colors need a white background for bright tones. That background is applied by dipping ware into a white liquid clay (called a 'slip' or 'engobe') before it has completely dried. The white slip, if paired well to the body (so it has compatible drying and firing properties) produces ware of greater utility. Potters can mix colored stain powders with the white slip and paint these on in designs after the slip has dried enough. Then the ware can be first-fired (bisque fired), a clear glaze applied and finally fired to cone 04-03 to produce a vibrant result. A variation on this in the 'majolica' process. Majolica ware is terra cotta clay which has been bisque-fired and covered with an opaque white glaze. That becomes the base for painting on metal-oxide stained overglaze colors. This process has the disadvantage of putting the metal oxide into contact with food, whereas the colored slip process isolates them behind a transparent glaze.
Achieving a crystal-clear, durable, defect free, non-crazed glaze surface on terra cotta is not trivial. Often terra cotta glazes have poor working properties (they settle quickly in the bucket or turn into a jelly that is difficult to apply). Success is achieved with a combination of the right chemsitry to produce a good glaze, the right recipe and mixing and gelling procedure to produce good working properties, the right bisque temperature and application technique and the right firing schedule to melt and level it well. This is a tall order for stoneware potters who have become accustomed to working in much more forgiving circumstances. Ideally, you should buy your terra cotta clay from someone that can provide support for the entire process. Buying it as a kit with the slip, glaze, colors and instructions all included is even better. If you can make it work well you could spend a lifetime with the process!
These terra cotta clays were bisque fired at cone 04 and glaze fired to 04 using the 04DSDH schedule. The glaze is G1916Q, an expansion-adjustable cone 04 clear. That schedule alone is often enough to get transparent, defect free glazes in many situations. But not in this case. The solution was to add a fining agent. In this case we added 2% red iron oxide (to the top glaze). The particles of iron floating in the melt acted as a congregating points for bubbles, helping them to escape. And we got a bonus: a more interesting aesthetic. We did further tests and determined that a 1% addition also worked, but not as well. And screening out the larger particles slightly degraded the fining performance. So we have settled on 2% iron and screening the glazes to 100 mesh. Although iron works here, it will not always do so in other situations. And, other fining agent agents we have used at cone 6 do not work in this situation (e.g. 2% Zircopax, Alumina).
Plus the glaze ran even more. The main problem was that the original firing was taken too high, about cone 02 (seven hour schedule). This body nears zero porosity there and is beginning to decompose. That generates gases. The second firing was taken to cone 03 in four hours. But the glaze just percolated more. However freshly glazed bisque ware in that same firing came out perfect. Lessons were learned. Fire faster. Keep it cone 03 or lower. Do not put the glaze on too thick. Use self-supporting cones to verify the electronic controller, they are much more accurate than regular cones.
These two samples demonstrate how different the LOI can be between different clays. The top one is mainly Redart (with a little bentonite and frit), it loses only 4% of its weight when fired to cone 02. The bottom one is New Zealand kaolin, it loses 14% when fired to the same temperature! The top one is vitrified, the bottom one will not vitrify for another 15 cones.
The glaze is well melted, but the interfacial zone with the body is very narrow. It is basically just stuck on the surface. The body is not developing any clearly visible glassy phases as does porcelain and stoneware, so not surprisingly, its strength is much lower than vitrified clay bodies at higher temperatures. However it is possible to add a frit and glass-bond the particles at cone 02 (at much higher cost of course). Not surprisingly, glazes must be more closely tuned to match the thermal expansion of the body for lower temperatures (since they are not stuck on as well).
These are two 10 gram GBMF test balls of Worthington Clear glaze fired at cone 03 on terra cotta tiles (55 Gerstley Borate, 30 kaolin, 20 silica). On the left it contains raw kaolin, on the right calcined kaolin. The clouds of finer bubbles (on the left) are gone from the glaze on the right. That means the kaolin is generating them and the Gerstley Borate the larger bubbles. These are a bane of the terra cotta process. One secret of getting more transparent glazes is to fire to temperature and soak only long enough to even out the temperature, then drop 100F and soak there (I hold it half an hour).
An example of a white engobe (L3685T) applied over a red clay body (L3724F), then a red engobe (also L3724F) applied over the white. The incised design reveals the white inter-layer. This is a tricky procedure, you have to make sure the two slips are well fitted to the body (and each other), having a compatible drying shrinkage, firing shrinkage, thermal expansion and quartz inversion behavior. This is much more complex that for glazes, they have no firing shrinkage and drying shrinkage only needs to be low enough for bisque application. Glazes also do not have quartz inversion issues.
A very fine particled low fire red burning terra cotta clay (Plainsman Redearth) fired at cone 2,3 and 4 (top to bottom). Notice the cone 4 bar is beginning the melting process (signaled by the fact that it is expanding). Yet it is not bloating as this type of raw clay normally would. The cone 2 and three bars have reached zero porosity also. Other clays that fire to very similar color begin to bloat long before they reach zero porosity.
This little pot on the left is more than it appears. Both of these samples were fired at cone 01 and clear glazed in the green state (without bisquing). The one on the right, a typical unprocessed native terra cotta clay, is full of pinholes, the one on the left has none. But the one on the left has been pre-processed by mother nature: it is from a thick layer of clay found below a bog in northern Alberta. It has 21% water content, you just cut a piece out, wedge it and throw a pot! Although it contains some particulate, it is highly plastic yet dries well and fires to a dense stoneware-like hardness 11 cones lower than we normally make stoneware at.
An excellent example that demonstrates the brittleness typical of vitrified terra cotta bodies. This bowl was fired to cone 02 and rung like a tuning fork when struck with a spoon. The body is dense like a porcelain and at appeared to be incredibly strong (this body is much more vitreous than an average terra cotta would be). However after a few more taps with the spoon it broke in two! It is brittle! Very hard, but brittle. At first I thought it might be that the glaze is under compression, but when I dropped the halves they did not shatter in the manner characteristic of compressed glaze, and they broke with razor sharp edges (like a vitrified porcelain does). So firing for this body must stop short of the most dense matrix possible to avoid this brittleness.
Bottom: cone 2, next up: cone 02, next up: cone 04. You can see varying levels of maturity (or vitrification). It is common for terra cotta clays to fire like this, from a light red at cone 06 and then darkening progressively as the temperature rises. Typical materials develop deep red color around cone 02 and then turn brown and begin to expand as the temperature continues to rise past that (the bottom bar appears stable but it has expanded alot, this is a precursor to looming rapid melting). The top disk is a cone 10R clay. It shares an attribute with the cone 02 terra cotta. Its variegated brown and red coloration actually depends on it not being mature, having a 4-5% porosity. If it were fired higher it would turn solid chocolate brown like the over-fired terra cotta at the bottom.
Bloating in an over fired middle temperature high iron raw clay (Plainsman M2). It is still stable, dense and apparently strong at cone 4 (having 1.1% porosity). But between cone 6 and 7 (top bar) it is already bloating badly. Such clays must be fired at low enough temperatures to avoid this volatility (if accidentally over fired). This clay only reaches a minimum of 1% porosity (between cone 4 and 5), it is not possible to fire it to zero porosity. This is because of the particulate gas-producing particles (it is ground to 42 mesh only).
This one can take more temperature than most. It looks OK at cone 5 (bottom bar). But at cone 6 bloating (bubbles) begin to occur. This body, while smooth to the touch, contains some iron and sulphate particulates that generate gases during firing, these are the catalyst for the bloating (the clay matrix becomes dense enough that it can no longer vent the gases of decomposition through it).
The terra cotta (red earthenware) body on the upper left is melting, it is way past zero porosity, past vitrified. The red one below it and third one down on the right have 1% porosity (like a stoneware), they are still fairly stable at cone 2. The two at the bottom have higher iron contents and are also 1% porosity. By contrast the buff and white bodies have 10%+ porosities. Terra cotta bodies do not just have high iron content to fire them red, they also have high flux content (e.g. sodium and potassium bearing minerals) that vitrifies them at low temperatures. White burning bodies are white because they are more pure (not only lacking the iron but also the fluxes). The upper right? Barnard slip. It has really high iron but has less fluxes than the terra cottas (having about 3% porosity).
This terra cotta cup is glazed with G2931G clear glaze (Ulexite based) and fired at cone 03. It survives 25 seconds under direct flame against the sidewall before a crack occurs. Typical porcelains and stonewares would survive 10 seconds. Super vitreous porcelains 5 seconds. This is an advantage of earthenware. Sudden changes in temperature cause localized thermal expansion, this produces tension and compression that easily cracks most ceramics. But the porous nature of earthenware absorbs it much better. During initial testing I found better performance for glazed earthenware (vs. unglazed), but in later testing they proved to be fairly similar. The TSFL test on consistently size tiles can be used to log more precise results.
L3685X white slip (left mug) has 5% more frit than Y (right). The frit is a melter, creating more glass bonds to adhere it to the body (it also hardens it and darkens the color a little). But the frit also increases firing shrinkage, 'stretching' the white layer on the body as the kiln cools (the slightly curled bi-clay bar demonstrates that). However the glaze, G2931G, is under some compression (to prevent crazing), it is therefore 'pushing back' on the white slip. This creates a state of equilibrium. The Y slip on the right is outside the equilibrium, it flakes off at the rim because the bond is not good enough. Adding more frit, the other side of the balance, would put the slip under excessive tension, reducing ware strength and increasing failure on exposure to thermal shock (the very curled bi-clay bar in the front, not this clay/slip demonstrates the tension a poorly fitted slip could impose).
The clay is terra cotta. It is volatile between 04 and 02, becoming dramatically more dense and darker colored. The electronic controller was set for cone 03, but it has fired flat (right-most cone), that means the kiln went to 02 or higher. At 02 the body has around 1% porosity, pushing into the range where the terra cotta begins to decompose (which means lots of gas expulsion). The outsides of some pieces blistered badly while the insides were perfect (because they got the extra radiant heat). The firing was slow, seven hours. Too long, better to make sure ware is dry and fire fast. Another problem: The potter was in a rush and the pieces were not dry. These factors taken together spelled disaster.
The body is Plainsman L215 (bisque fired at cone 06). The glaze is G2931K. There is good reason to glaze fire to cone 03 instead of 04. Although these commercial underglazes work the same the clay fired at cone 03 is stronger and a deeper red color. But best of all, the glaze is more transparent (because it has fewer micro-bubbles suspended in the glass). Cone 03 is also more tolerant of getting the glaze on too thick, at 04 it will turn completely milky.
The white engobe was applied by pouring at leather hard stage. The underglazes were also painted on at leather hard. The mugs were then dried, cleaned, bisque fired, dipping in clear glaze and final fired to cone 03. The clay and engobe have frit additions to make them vitrify at low temperatures.
This terra cotta cup (center) is glazed with G2931G clear glaze (Ulexite based) and fired at cone 03. It survives 30 seconds under direct flame against the sidewall and turns red-hot before a fracture occurs (the unglazed one also survived 30 seconds, it only cracked, it did not fracture). The porcelain mug (Plainsman M370) is glazed with G2926B clear, it survived 15 seconds (even though it is much thinner). The porcelain is much more dense and durable, but the porous nature of the earthenware clearly withstands thermal shock much better. It is actually surprisingly durable.
These terra cotta mugs are fired at cone 03. Although the glaze on the left one is melted well the terra cotta itself has a porosity of more than 10%. The mug on the right is a finer grained terra cotta with added frit to make it vitrify. It is thus dramatically stronger and more durable, rivalling high temperature stoneware. Neither of the glazes are crazed, but the glaze on the right is much more firmly attached and resistant to future crazing. Does the mug on the left have an advantage? Yes. Although both can withstand hot coffee being poured in, the one on the left can withstand more dramatic thermal shocks without the piece itself cracking.
Like this! This terra cotta clay vitrifies here at 1957F (cone 03). This problem is common in many terra cotta materials but can also surface in others. Barium carbonate can be used to precipitate the salts inside the clay matrix so they do not come to the surface on drying.
These are four terra cotta body disks that have been fired to cone 10 reduction. The fluxing action of the iron has assisted to take them well along in melting. Notice that one is hardly bubbling at all, it is Redart clay that has been ground to 200 mesh (the lower right one is a body mix of 200 mesh materials also containing it). The upper left one is bubbling alot more. Why? Not just because it is melted more (in fact, the one on the lower left is the most melted). It is a body made from clays that have been ground to 42 mesh. Among the particles are larger ones that generate gases as they decompose. Yes, the particles in the others do the same, but their smaller size enables earlier decomposition and expulsion of smaller gas amounts distributed at many more vents. Some bodies cannot be fired to a point of zero porosity, they will bubble before they get there.
Low fire glazes must be able to pass the bubbles their bodies generate (or clouds of micro-bubbles will turn them white). This cone 04 flow tester makes it clear that although 3825B has a higher melt fluidity (it has flowed off onto the tile, A has not). And it has a much higher surface tension. How do I know that? The flow meets the runway at a perpendicular angle (even less), it is long and narrow and it is white (full of entrained micro-bubbles). Notice that A meanders down the runway, a broad, flat and relatively clear river. Low fire glazes must pass many more bubbles than their high temperature counterparts, the low surface tension of A aids that. A is Amaco LG-10. B is Crysanthos SG213 (Spectrum 700 behaves similar to SG13, although flowing less). However they all dry very slowly. Watch for a post on G2931J, a Ulexite/Frit-based recipe that works like A but dries on dipped ware in seconds (rather than minutes).
This is a road-side stand in Mexico in 2016. Each of these "cazuelas" (casseroles) have a flame under them to keep the food inside warm. The pedestal is unglazed. The ware is thick and heavy. The casseroles are hand decorated with under glaze slip colors and a very thin layer of lead glaze is painted over (producing a terra sigilatta type appearance, but with brush stoke texture). These have been made and used here for hundreds years. How can they not crack over an open flame? The flame is small. The clay is fired as low or lower than potters in Canada or the US would even fired their bisque. It is porous, open and able to absorb the stresses. They know these pieces are not strong, so they treat them with care.
It is going to be applied to leather hard earthenware and it needs to be thixotropic (gelled when not in motion, liquid when in motion). Why? I do not want it to run down from the rims of the mugs after dipping. The process: Stir the engobe, pour-fill the mug, pour it out and push it upside down into the engobe. If I can pull it back out before the 10 second gel-time is up I get a perfectly even layer that does not move. A good test is to stir it then pull out the spatula slowly. If it hangs on in a even layer with only a few drips it is perfect. Achieving this behaviour requires very careful additions of powdered epsom salts (and thorough mixing between). As the slip approaches this 10 second threshold even a slight bit more salts will turn it into a bucket of jelly (if that happens I add a drop or two of Darvan). This process works across a range of specific gravities (about 1.45-1.6), the higher the SG the trickier it is (but the faster it dries).
Terra cotta bodies are more volatile in the kiln than stonewares. They mature rapidly over a narrower range of temperatures, that process is accompanied by dramatic changes in fired color, density and fired strength. These bars are fired (bottom to top) at cone 06, 04, 03, 02, 2 and 4. This is Plainsman BGP, cone 02 finds it at maximum density (and fired shrinkage). At cone 06 (1830F/1000C) it is porous and shrinks very little. But as it approaches and passes cone 03 (1950F/1070C) the color deepens and then moves toward brown at cone 02 (where it reaches maximum density). However past cone 02 it becomes unstable, beginning to melt (as indicated by negative shrinkage). This is typical of most terra cotta clay materials.
This is slurry is made of 80% Redart and 20% KT1-4 ball clay. It has very good casting properties IF it is deflocculated well (smaller pieces can be cast in 10 minutes and extracted from the mold in another 10). However high-iron slurries are notorious for gelling, either right away during mixing or later. Sometimes a slurry seems to pour well into a mold but 10 minutes later it has gelled so much that vigorous shaking is need to loosen it enough to pour it back out (even then much may hang on in corners). A batch of slurry may need extra deflocculant several times over the first few days of being used. Davan 811 is often used for these. More deflocculant is needed, in this case about 1 gram for each 100 grams of powdered clay.
It may not melt, but will certainly warp and blister/bloat. If there is inadequate kiln wash it will stick to the kiln shelf.
These saws are quite inexpensive and they make impressive claims on what you will be able to cut. But, things are different in practice! First, it is a real challenge to get the diamond wire to stay in the saw, it pulls out easily. It is not possible to turn the thumb screws tight enough with your fingers, you will need to use a pair of pliers. Then the challenge is tightening them enough to hold the wire securely, but not so tight you strip the threads. Once the wire is in securely, be prepared to make slow progress. This type of cutting is normally done by a machine that loops the wire continually, for hours. To cut this soft terra cotta piece took about 15 minutes! It was fired to about cone 010. Cutting stoneware or porcelain would likely be impossible. Even bisque ware fired to cone 06 or 04 would be harder than this. Using heavier gauge of wire would enable pressing harder, but this tool is not built heavy enough for that.
This ware is used all over the city by street-side restaurants and food vendors. They all know to handle it with care to prevent breakage.
We tested four different clays (brought in by customers). One is from BC and three from Alberta. These fired sample bars show rich color, low soluble salts and high density and strength at very low temperatures. L4233 (left): Cone 06 to 3 (bottom to top). Reaches stoneware-density at cone 02 (middle bar). Plasticity is very low (drying shrinkage is only 4.5%). But, it is stable even if over-fired. L4254 (center bottom): Cone 04,02,3,4 (bottom to top). Very fine particled but contains an organic that is gassing and bloating the middle two bars. L4243: Fires lighter and looks stable here (cone 02,01,1,2 shown) but melts suddenly less than a cone above the top bar (well before vitrification is reached). L4242 (right): Hyper-plastic, with 12% drying shrinkage! Already melting by cone 02 (third from top). Achieves almost zero porosity (porcelain density) at cone 04 (#2 bar). Even when mixed with 20% kaolin and 20% silica it still hits zero porosity by cone 1. What next? I'll mix L4233 (left) and L4242 (right), that should produce stoneware density at cone 02 (about 1% porosity).
Terra cotta bodies typically develop richer color at cone 03 and fire much stronger. Glazes melt better and thus micro-bubbles pass through easier, this produces better transparency and a more brilliant surface. Notice that crazing is beginning on the one of the left. But because of better body:glaze interface and development of better vitrification the one on the right is not crazing. Cone 03 is somewhat of a sweet-spot for this specific body, firing higher begins decomposition processes that generate gases that disrupt the surface. Needless to say, accurate firing is needed to fire at cone 03 with ongoing success.
Tin oxide is a powerful opacifier, but the 5% in the glaze on the left is clearly not enough. 10% more zircon had to be added to produce the one on the right.
A variety of terra cotta clay test bars (and a low temperature porcelain) that have been fired to cone 5. The measurement and weight data from these bars is entered into the appropriate recipes in my account at Insight-live.com; it uses that data to calculate shrinkage and porosities. I will also attach link this picture to each of the recipes. Some are quite vitreous and stoneware-like, some are in the advanced stages of melting, others could take more heat yet.
The use of some traditional firing techniques is still popular among modern potters and sculptors (who are accustomed electric and gas kilns, often with computer controllers).
Clays form by the weathering of rock deposits over long periods. Primary clays are found near the site of alteration. Secondary clays are transported by water and laid down in layers.
Majolica is white opaque glazed red earthenware clay having colored overglaze decoration. But if you know more about what it is technically you will have more control of your product.
What is the difference between earthenware and a regular stoneware body? Earthenwares lack the glass development to fill voids and glue particles.
Clay Body Porosity
In ceramics, porosity is considered an indication of density, and therefore strength and durability. Porosity is measured by the weight increase when boiled in water.
When sudden changes in temperature cause dimensional changes ceramics often fail because of their brittle nature. Yet some ceramics are highly resistant.
A ceramic whose priorities are translucency, whiteness, fired strength and resistance to thermal shock failure.
Five low fire glazes: Which is the best?
Monoporosa or Single Fired Wall Tiles
A history, technical description of the process and body and glaze materials overview of the monoporosa single fire glazed wall tile process from the man who invented it.
|Materials||Iron Oxide Red|
|Media||How to Apply a White Slip to Terra Cotta Ware|
L3724F - Cone 03 Terra Cotta Stoneware
An experimental Zero3 using Plainsman 3D clay