Tenmoku is a kind of ceramic glaze. Glossy, very dark brown or maroon, edges crystalizing, firing at high temperature in reduction atmospheres.
A reduction fired glaze having about 10-12% iron oxide that fires to a highly glossy deep maroon to black. Tenmokus normally break to iron-red crystallized areas where thinner and thus work well to visually highlight incised decoration or abrupt contours. Tiny yellow iron silicate crystals adorn thick sections of the glaze when sufficient melting has occurred or iron percentage is higher. Tenmokus behave differently on porcelains and stonewares.
Needless to say, the effect requires a that the degree of melting be exactly right. It looks the best when the glaze is melting and flowing as much as possible. Of course, if it is running too much it runs down off the ware onto the shelf and thins on vertical sections. The difference between these two extremes is quite small. For example, if the glaze flux is calcium carbonate, as little as a 1-2% change may be significant. Thus you need to be prepared to adjust the flux and iron content in the recipe to tune the melt and color in your circumstances. Of course, the rate of cooling also affects how much the crystals grow.
Tenmoku glazes typically are very red in the bucket because they contain so much iron oxide. This iron makes the slurry gel over time. This and the red color can make such glaze slurries really messy to use. Tenmokus also tend to have high feldspar and low clay content so they settle in the bucket, apply to the ware poorly and do not harden well on drying and craze on firing. Using glaze chemistry it is possible to produce a recipe that sources the iron from a low fire red clay so that little red iron oxide powder is needed. It is also possible to swap KNaO (the high expansion oxides in feldspar) for other fluxes that work equally well and have a much lower thermal expansion. Another alternative is Alberta Slip. By itself it is almost Tenmoku at cone 10R, it just needs 1-2% added iron and possibly 5% calcium carbonate or dolomite. Another way to make a tenmoku is to simply add 10% iron oxide to a good transparent cone 10R recipe (like G19147U). It is better to put the iron in a clear recipe you already use and know works with your clay bodies than to invite a completely new tenmoku recipe into your production.
Iron-crystal glazes are closely related, however they contain more iron oxide, the rust colored crystallization covers the whole surface.
Fired on a porcelain in a gas kiln.
Each potter using Tenmoku has their own preferences about how the glaze should look. Ron clearly likes the iron crystals to develop well on the edges of contours. He has learned how to walk a delicate firing and recipe balance to achieve this effect. If the percentage of iron is too high, or the glaze is applied too thin, reduction is too heavy or the cooling too slow there will be too muchy crystallization. If the iron is too low, cooling is too fast or the glaze it too thick it will be a solid black. Additionally, this effect depends on a glaze having a fluid melt (the iron is a strong flux), if the glaze is too thick it will run downward during the firing.
All of these are on a cone 10 reduction fired iron stoneware (Plainsman H443). Far left: G2894 Ravenscrag Tenmoku with 10% whiting and 10% iron oxide added. Center: Pure Alberta Slip plus 5% whiting and 1% iron oxide. Right: Pure Alberta Slip plus 5% whiting and and 2% iron. The Alberta Slip versions are less messy to use because so much less iron is needed (iron also causes the slurry to gel). The Ravenscrag version is running, it is too fluid. Likely 5% calcium carbonate would be enough (and maybe less iron).
This cone 10R glaze, a tenmoku with about 12% iron oxide, demonstrates how iron turns to a flux in reduction firing and produces a glaze melt that is much more fluid. In oxidation, iron is refractory and does not melt well (this glaze would be completely stable on the ware in an oxidation firing at the same temperature, and much lighter in color).
Right: Alberta slip is almost a Tenmoku glaze by itself at cone 10 reduction. To go all the way only 1-2% more iron is needed (plus a little extra flux for melt fluidity, perhaps 5% calcium carbonate). Compare that to crow-baring a clear glaze into a tenmoku (left): This is G1947U plus 11% red iron oxide. That produces a slurry that is miserable to work with (it stains everything it comes into contact with) and turns into a jelly on standing.
The mug on the left was in a hotter part of the kiln (gas reduction), it's surface is brilliant glassy smooth and metallic. The one on the right is dull, pebbly, much less interesting. The temperature difference is about one cone. This is not enough to make much difference in the transparent glaze, but the tenmoku is sensitive, it needs to reach the full temperature.
Iron oxide is an amazing glaze addition in reduction. It produces celadons at low percentages, then progresses to a clear amber glass by 5%, then to an opaque brown at 7%, a tenmoku by 9% and finally metallic crystalline with increasingly large crystals past 13%. These samples were cooled naturally in a large reduction kiln, the crystallization mechanism would be much heavier if it were cooled more slowly.
GR10-K1 Cone 10R Ravenscrag Tenmoku (right) compared to Tenmoku made from Alberta Slip (left, it is 91% Alberta Slip with 5% added calcium carbonate and 2% iron oxide). Left is Plainsman P700 porcelain, right is H570. Tenmokus are popular for the way they break to a crystalline light brown on the edges of contours.
Body is Plainsman P580. Far left: G2894 Ravenscrag Tenmoku with 10% whiting and 10% iron oxide added. Center: Pure Alberta Slip plus 5% whiting and 1% iron oxide. Right: Pure Alberta Slip plus 5% whiting and and 2% iron. The Alberta Slip versions are less messy to use because so much less iron is needed (iron also causes the slurry to gel). The Ravenscrag and higher iron Alberta Slip versions are running, they are too fluid. The rust colored crystals are not developing the way they did with these glazes on an iron stoneware (in the same firing).
In the glaze on the left (90% Ravenscrag Slip and 10% iron oxide) the iron is saturating the melt crystallizing out during cooling. GR10-K1, on the right, is the same glaze but with 5% added calcium carbonate. This addition is enough to keep most of the iron in solution through cooling, so it contributes to the super-gloss deep tenmoku effect instead of precipitating out.
This is Plainsman H550 and P700. The inside glaze is G1947U. They were fired in 10 reduction.
This occurs as they cool in the kiln. The slower the cooling and the more iron oxide there is, the bigger and more plentiful these crystals will be.
White backgrounds are used for presentation on ecommerce websites (contextual backgrounds when showing a product in use). Even if you can photograph to pure white at the edges of a photo, it will transition to grey around the object and pieces will almost always have some fuzzy edges. While there are automated edge-detection tools in editors like Photoshop or GIMP, they do not give clean edges like this. So professionals do this job using a vector-editing tool. In the past this implied learning the path tool (e.g. inPhotoshop) but now inexpensive phone apps can do it well. On the lower left is the original image (already cropped). On the lower right I have it open in an iOS app named Exacto. The blue dots are stationary anchors and the black ones pull out curves between them (curves flow smoothly through the black ones). By zooming and add/moving dots I can produce these crisp edges (Exacto saves it to iOS Photos with a transparent background). Notice how clearly the clean edges enhance the throwing rings on the right.
G1947U - Cone 10 Glossy Transparent Base Glaze
Reliable widely used base glaze for cone 10 porcelains and whitewares. The original recipe was developed from a glaze used for porcelain insulators.
GA10-B - Alberta Slip Tenmoku Cone 10R
You can make a tenmoku from Alberta Slip by adding only 2% iron oxide and 5% calcium carbonate
Non-functional ceramic glazes having very high percentages of metallic oxides/carbonates (manganese, copper, cobalt, chrome).