In ceramics, certain compounds (e.g. calcium or magnesium sulphate) in clays and glazes can dissolve into the water of the plastic material, then on drying these are left on the surface as the water evaporates. For more information, see the topic Efflorescence.
Various cone 10R clays with soluble salts on the surface
These disks concentrate the solubles on the outer edge (because of the way they are dried). Soluble salts can enhance the visual appeal of a fired clay but they can also do the opposite.
Particle size drastically affects drying performance
These are DFAC drying performance tests of Plainsman A2 ball clay at 10 mesh (left) and ball milled (right). This test dries a flat disk that has the center section covered to delay its progress in comparison to the outer section (thus setting up stresses). Finer particle sizes greatly increase shrinkage and this increases the number of cracks and the cracking pattern of this specimen. Notice it has also increased the amount of soluble salts that have concentrated between the two zones, more is dissolving because of the increased particle surface area.
How bad can efflorescence of soluble salts be?
Like this! This terra cotta clay vitrifies here at 1957F (cone 03). This problem is common in many terra cotta materials but can also surface in others. Barium carbonate can be used to precipitate the salts inside the clay matrix so they do not come to the surface on drying.
Plucking in a cone 10R stoneware body having soluble salts
The solubles salts have formed the brown coloration on the bare clay foot ring. While the actual salts layer is very thin, it is glassy and enough to glue parts of the base to the kiln shelf (the latter did not have adequate kiln wash or sand). The glaze line is close to the foot and this complicates the problem. There are a couple of solutions. Sand the foot ring at the dry stage to remove the soluble salt layer. Use a more refractory kiln wash that offers a powdery, non-stick surface.
Solubles salts on a porcelain mug are causing plucking
Fired to cone 10R. The porcelain contains bentonite and a plastic kaolin, both are contributing iron-stained solubles that come to the surface during drying. They tend to concentrate on this foot ring. The solution is to employ a little barium carbonate in the porcelain recipe to precipitate the salts. These could also be sponged or sanded off in the dry state.
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