•The secret to cool bodies and glazes is a lot of testing.
•The secret to know what to test is material and chemistry knowledge.
•The secret to learning from testing is documentation.
•The place to test, do the chemistry and document is an account at https://insight-live.com
•The place to get the knowledge is https://digitalfire.com

Sign-up at https://insight-live.com today.

Maturity


A term referring to the degree to which a clay or glaze has vitrified or sintered during the firing. A 'mature' stoneware or porcelain clay is normally one that is dense and strong. Mature clays used for functional ware are dense enough to resist soaking up water. Firing commercial clays at too low a temperature will result in weaker pieces (than can become waterlogged over time, continually weakening). Every clay has an ideal range (often quite narrow) to which it should be fired to develop maximum maturity. Some manufacturers list wider-than-practical firing ranges for certain clay bodies, leaving customers to discover the best temperature. Others recommend a vitrification temperature that is too high.

Of course, maximum maturity is not always what is wanted, clay bodies are often purposely used at temperatures less than mature to get more stability in the kiln, more margin for imprecise firing or to achieve a warm color (which is lost if the clay is fired higher).

Some technicians believe that chemistry is an indicator of body maturity, however caution is needed. Chemistry is generally for glazes, they melt. Body maturity is about physics, materials, mineralogies, firing procedures, etc. Maturity can be measured by its physical indicators (fired shrinkage, porosity, fired strength, fired appearance). Our SHAB test is a good example of a procedure to measure body fired maturity.

Other authors and educators relate fired maturity to the packing density of particles in the dried matrix (controlling this using particle size and shape information provided by material manufacturers). Caution is needed in this view also since it diverts attention from the key factor that creates the vitreous strength: the functions of the individual particle types. Vitreous fired ceramic microstructure is normally a mesh of aggregate particles (silica, grog, etc), crystals grown during firing (mullite) and a glass (from feldspar, fluxes) that glues it all together. The strength of the ceramic is a function of the degree to which the kiln created this vitrified microstructure, not how tightly packed particles were in the dried state. Bodies lacking feldspar or flux will not vitrify no matter how dense they were when dry. Bodies over-vitrify when they have too much feldspar, not when particles pack too densely on drying.

Maturity can also be seen as a process, one that may occur across a wide or narrow range of temperatures. As a clay body matures its increasing shrinkage and diminishing porosity can be plotted on a graph (as percentages). The fired shrinkage curve rises to a maximum (usually below 15%), levels off and then begins dropping. The porosity curve does the opposite (often down to zero). The point at which the curves reverse direction is where the body is beginning to swell and melt. A body fired to a point anywhere within the leveled-off sections of the curves is volatile and susceptible to problems (e.g. when variations occur in body material properties). These curves can be moved righward by adding silica to the body recipe (or trading the main clay for more refractory ones). The curves can be moved leftward by adding feldspar (or other fluxes). Controlling and tuning body maturity should be done by firing plenty of test bars for each body recipe change made.

Glazes can also be described using this term. A 'mature' glaze has been fired high enough and held at that temperature long enough such that its melt flows well, heals imperfections and provides a good covering. It cools to a hard, durable surface that is resistant to leaching. Firing that same glaze to a low temperature would compromise these properties.

Like the term 'vitrified', the term 'mature' needs to be taken in context. A mature sintered refractory, for example, can be quite porous, yet it can still be very strong.

Test bars of different terra cotta clays fired at different temperatures

Test bars of different terra cotta clays fired at different temperatures

Bottom: cone 2, next up: cone 02, next up: cone 04. You can see varying levels of maturity (or vitrification). It is common for terra cotta clays to fire like this, from a light red at cone 06 and then darkening progressively as the temperature rises. Typical materials develop deep red color around cone 02 and then turn brown and begin to expand as the temperature continues to rise past that (the bottom bar appears stable but it has expanded alot, this is a precursor to looming rapid melting). The top disk is a cone 10R clay. It shares an attribute with the cone 02 terra cotta. Its variegated brown and red coloration actually depends on it not being mature, having a 4-5% porosity. If it were fired higher it would turn solid chocolate brown like the over-fired terra cotta at the bottom.

Cone 2: Where we see the real difference between terra cottas and white bodies

Cone 2: Where we see the real difference between terra cottas and white bodies

The terra cotta (red earthenware) body on the upper left is melting, it is way past zero porosity, past vitrified. The red one below it and third one down on the right have 1% porosity (like a stoneware), they are still fairly stable at cone 2. The two at the bottom have higher iron contents and are also 1% porosity. By contrast the buff and white bodies have 10%+ porosities. Terra cotta bodies do not just have high iron content to fire them red, they also have high flux content (e.g. sodium and potassium bearing minerals) that vitrifies them at low temperatures. White burning bodies are white because they are more pure (not only lacking the iron but also the fluxes). The upper right? Barnard slip. It has really high iron but has less fluxes than the terra cottas (having about 3% porosity).

Underfiring a clay is OK if the glaze fits? No it is not.

Underfiring a clay is OK if the glaze fits? No it is not.

Left: Plainsman M340 fired to cone 6 where it achieves about 1.5% porosity, good density and strength. Right: H550, a Plainsman body intended to mature at cone 10, but fired to cone 6 using the same glaze. Although the glaze melts well and the mug appears OK, it is not. It is porous and weak. In fact, it has cracked during use (the crack runs diagonally down from the rim). It was then dipped into water for a few moments and immediately the water penetrated the crack and began to soak into the body (you can see it spreading out from the crack). If this glaze were to craze the entire thing would be waterlogged in minutes.

These two pieces will not mature to the same degree in a firing

These two pieces will not mature to the same degree in a firing

Soak the firing 30 minutes to mature the mug and the planter will not mature. Soak 2 hours for the planter and the glaze may melt too much and the clay be too vitreous. This is a troublesome issue with electric kilns. Furthermore, they employ radiant heat. That means that sections of ware on the shady side (or the under side) will never reach the temperature of those on the element side no matter how long you soak.

How much porcelain flux is too much?

How much porcelain flux is too much?

A porcelain mug has pulled slightly oval because of the weight of the handle. This happens in highly vitrified porcelains (e.g. translucent ones). The amount of feldspar or frit in the body determines the degree of maturity, the correct percentage is a balance between enough to get the maximum translucency and hardness but not so much that ware is deforming excessively during firing. This is Plainsman Polar Ice at cone 6, this degree of warp is acceptable and can be compensated for.

Cone 6 kaolin porcelain verses ball clay porcelain.

Cone 6 kaolin porcelain verses ball clay porcelain.

Typical porcelains are made using clay (for workability), feldspar (for fired maturity) and silica (for structural integrity and glaze fit). These cone 6 test bars demonstrate the fired color difference between using kaolin (top) and ball clay (bottom). The top one employs #6 Tile super plastic kaolin, but even with this it still needs a 3% bentonite addition for plasticity. The bottom one uses Old Hickory #5 and M23, these are very clean ball clays but still nowhere near the whiteness of kaolins. Plus, 1% bentonite was still needed to get adequate plasticity for throwing. Which is better? For workability and drying, the bottom one is much better. For fired appearance, the top one.

Water-logging happens when a clay is underfired

Water-logging happens when a clay is underfired

The cone 6 glaze is well developed, it is not crazed. But the clay underneath is not developed, not vitreous. This crack happened when the mug was bumped (because of poor strength). It is barely visible. When the mug is filled with water, this happens. How fast? This picture was taken about 5 seconds later. If this was crazing, and this piece was in actual use, the clay would gradually become completely water logged. Then one day someone would put it in the microwave! Boom.

A red fireclay from cone 7 (bottom) to cone 10 and 10R

A red fireclay from cone 7 (bottom) to cone 10 and 10R

Notice how much the color changes as the clay fires to greater maturity. This is Plainsman FireRed.

A terra cotta body fired from cone 06 (bottom) to 4

A terra cotta body fired from cone 06 (bottom) to 4

Terra cotta bodies are more volatile, maturing more rapidly over a narrower range than others. These bars are fired (bottom to top) at cone 06, 04, 03, 02, 2 and 4. This is Plainsman BGP.

A sculpture body fired from cone 1 (bottom) to 11 and 10R (top)

A sculpture body fired from cone 1 (bottom) to 11 and 10R (top)

Color, density, size and hardness all change as the firing temperature progresses. The color, for example, persists in zones, then changes suddenly. Notice that the colour of the grog particles contrasts more as the temperature increases. This body is completely vitrified at cone 10 and the grog is important for fired stability.

What happens when a terra cotta body is fired to cone 6

What happens when a terra cotta body is fired to cone 6

It may not melt, but will certainly warp and blister/bloat. If there is inadequate kiln wash it will stick to the kiln shelf.

Particle size and LOI determine behaviour of over-fired bodies

Particle size and LOI determine behaviour of over-fired bodies

These are four terra cotta body disks that have been fired to cone 10 reduction. The fluxing action of the iron has assisted to take them well along in melting. Notice that one is hardly bubbling at all, it is Redart clay that has been ground to 200 mesh (the lower right one is a body mix of 200 mesh materials also containing it). The upper left one is bubbling alot more. Why? Not just because it is melted more (in fact, the one on the lower left is the most melted). It is a body made from clays that have been ground to 42 mesh. Among the particles are larger ones that generate gases as they decompose. Yes, the particles in the others do the same, but their smaller size enables earlier decomposition and expulsion of smaller gas amounts distributed at many more vents. Some bodies cannot be fired to a point of zero porosity, they will bubble before they get there.

Out Bound Links

  • (Glossary) Vitrification

    Vitrification is the solidification of a melt into...

  • (Tests) SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption Test

In Bound Links

  • (Glossary) Porcelain

    Traditional utilitarian porcelains are comparative...

  • (Glossary) Functional

    A functional clay body is one that produces a cera...

  • (Glossary) Warping

    Normally refers to a body firing problem where ves...


By Tony Hansen




Feedback, Suggestions

Your email address

Subject

Your Name

Message


Copyright 2003, 2008, 2015 https://digitalfire.com, All Rights Reserved