•The secret to cool bodies and glazes is alot of testing.
•The secret to know what to test is material and chemistry knowledge.
•The secret to learning from testing is documentation.
•The place to test, do the chemistry and document is an account at https://insight-live.com
•The place to get the knowledge is https://digitalfire.com
The fired strength of clays can be measured. The test is sometimes called M.O.R. or modulus of rupture, recognizing the fact that brittle ceramics fail suddenly (as opposed to others that fail after some plastic deformation). This is also known simply as tensile strength (because the point of failure is always where the sample is under most tension). Ceramics perform much better under compressive strength testing than they do when stressed flexurally, compressive testing is more common in the structural ceramics industry.
Common sense suggests that the more vitrified a clay is, the stronger it will be. Likewise, we assume that higher temperatures produce stronger ware. The growth of mullite crystals in porcelain at high temperatures can contribute to alot of strength. However other factors also contribute to fired strength (particle packing, vitrified vs. sintered, shape and surface properties) and products fired at lower temperature can rival the strength of high fire.
For glazeless vitrified ceramics, maturity is a key factor in achieving optimal fired strength. Testing is required since optimal strength may produce a body with more fired warping than desired. Strength may also drop off less than expected at lower levels of vitrification. Bodies that have been vitrified too much and have become glassy lose strength and become brittle. One reason is that over maturity can detrimentally affect the development of mullite crystals (pyrophyllite is often added to porcelains to encourage better development of a mesh of long mullite crystals within the matrix). Lower temperature clay bodies can develop considerable strength at much higher porosities that you might expect. Infact, one of the strongest bodies we have ever tested was fired at cone 1 with around 3-4% porosity (more than 10,000 psi). However, in industry, good strength is achieved at much higher porosities than this, especially when body materials are very fine and the process densifies the matrix well. Wollastonite suppliers claim that additions of their material can greatly improve the fired strength of non-vitreous bodies. Thus, the optimal fired strength of a body is a product of a number of compromises involved with firing, forming, materials, glazing and the needed thermal expansion.
Ceramic is brittle, so any surface discontinuities (e.g. micro-tears made during forming from poor plasticity), large cavities or pores (e.g. from material burned away during firing) or aggregate particles (coarse grog particles are often surrounded by micro-cracks as a product of drying and firing) provide places for failures to propagate from. A body matrix can have coarser particles, but these must be complemented by a range of sizes that produce an overall matrix that has densified well during drying and firing.
When ceramics are glazed and number of new factors must be considered. Glaze fit is very important. Crazing is a defect that produces micro-cracks that provide convenient sites for failure when stresses occur. We have measured a 300% difference in fired strength between a poorly fitted glaze and a well fitted one. A white stoneware, for example, measured about 2500 psi with a crazing glaze, while a well fitted one measured 8000 psi. Care must be exercised not to have glaze under too much compression as this could produce shivering and contribute to spectacular failures for certain types of ware.
People accustomed to working only with vitrified bodies are often surprised at how strong sintered ones can be. Even though the latter lack the glass to cement particles together and do not develop crystalline mesh matrices their particle size distributions, density and the much higher temperatures to which they are fired produce surprising strength.
How much does clay shrink when bisque fired?
Not much. These mugs were exactly the same height before a bisque firing to cone 06. The clay is a porcelain made from kaolin, feldspar and silica.
Which is stronger: Cone 10R mug or cone 03 mug?
The mug on the left is high temperature Plainsman P700 (Grolleg porcelain). The other is Plainsman Zero3 fired at cone 03. Zero3 has a secret: Added frit which reduces the porosity of the terra cotta base (therefore increasing the density) dramatically. How? The frit melts easily at cone 03 and fills the interparticle space with glass, that glass bonds everything together securely as the piece cools. Although I do not have strength testing equipment right now, I would say that although the P700 mug likely has a harder surface, the Zero3 one is less brittle and more difficult to break.
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By Tony Hansen