Black Coring, Black Core
Black coring usually occurs during a reduction firing and is a result of fast firing and/or lack of oxygen in the kiln between 700 and 900C (usually in the bisque firing). If body carbon fails to oxidize to CO2 it steals oxygen from Fe2O3 (reducing it to FeO, a powerful flux.) This FeO will then flux the body, sealing it and preventing the escape of remaining carbon in the body. This produces the characteristic 'black core' you see on ware cross section. The more iron in a body, the greater the risk of this problem if firing is not right. Once iron is reduced to it is very difficult to reoxidize it back to Fe2O3.
Carbon burnout in a ball clay
A broken test bar of ball clay fired to cone 10 reduction. Notice the black carbon core. Ball clays commonly contain carbon, many have a noticeable grey color in the raw state because of this. Notice it has not burned out despite the fact that the clay itself is still fairly porous, the firing was slow and the temperature reached was high. Ball clay typically does not comprise more than 30% of a body recipe so its opportunity to burn away is sufficient. However some specialized bodies have a much higher percentage.
Lignite can be big trouble
Example of the lignite particles in a fireclay (Pine Lake) that have been exposed on the rim of a vessel after sponging. This is a coarse clay, but if it were incorporated into a recipe of a stoneware, glaze pinholing would be likey.
Iron oxide goes crazy in reduction
Cone 6 iron bodies that fire non-vitreous and burn tan or brown in oxidation can easily go dark or vitreous chocolate brown (or even melting and bloated in reduction). On the right is Plainsman M350, a body that fires light tan in oxidation, notice how it burns deep brown in reduction at the same temperature. This occurs because the iron converts to a flux and the glass development that occurs brings out the dark color. On the left is Plainsman M2, a raw high iron clay that is quite vitreous in oxidation, but in reduction it is bloating badly. When reduction bodies are this vitreous there is a much great danger of black coring.
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