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Agglomeration


The fine mineral, oxide and clay particles used in ceramics often aglommerate during storage or even in the latter stages of production. These must be broken down for use in bodies and glazes for serious problems can result (e.g. fired speckle).

4% iron oxide in a clear glaze. Unscreened. The result: Fired specks.

4% iron oxide in a clear glaze. Unscreened. The result: Fired specks.

Iron oxide is a very fine powder. Unfortunately it can agglomerate badly and no amount of wet mixing seems to break down the lumps. However putting the glaze through a screen, in this case, 80 mesh, does reduce them in size. Ball milling would remove them completely. Other oxide colorants have this same issue (e.g. cobalt oxide). Stains disperse much better in slurries.

Wollastonite containing glazes should be sieved

Wollastonite containing glazes should be sieved

Screen a glaze to break down the wollastonite agglomerates (which often form in storage). This is an 80 mesh plastic sieve (the actual screen is a metal insert inside), I am using a spatula to encourage it to pass through the screen. If you do not do this, the small lumps you see on the freshly glazed piece will fire to surface bumps and ruin the glaze.

Comparing the fired glaze specks from different iron oxide brands

Comparing the fired glaze specks from different iron oxide brands

Five different brand names of iron oxide at 4% in G1214W cone 5 transparent glaze. The glazes have been sieved to 100 mesh but remaining specks are still due to agglomeration of particles, not particle size differences.

This is how New Zealand kaolin powder agglomerates

This is how New Zealand kaolin powder agglomerates

These balls are easily broken down by the propeller in a slurry mixer. But they do not break down easily in a dry mixer, even when in a mix with other materials (like silica and feldspar). They just bounce around on a vibrating screen. That means that without some sort of finishing device in the dry material feed stream to break down these lumps before the pugmill, it is difficult to manufacture homogeneous plastic body employing it.

Blue specks in a pugged porcelain. Be careful when adding stain.

Blue specks in a pugged porcelain. Be careful when adding stain.

This is the cut-line on a wet, plastic slug of porcelain. These specks are agglomerates of a blue stain and existed even though the porcelain was dispersed under a powerful slurry mixer for ten minutes. Pure cobalt, if used to stain a porcelain, is known to do this. So stain is often used as an alternative. Some stains disperse much better than others (and do not agglomerate like this). The lesson is to test the colors of the stain available to you to make sure and use one that does disperse well.

In Bound Links

  • (Glossary) Dust Pressing

    A method of fabricating ceramic objects (typically brick, tile and sometimes flatware) where clay powder is pressed under high pressure (e.g. 500 kg/cm2) into metal molds. The binding mechanism is either water or binding additives. This method of production requires minimal drying facilities and len...


By Tony Hansen




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