Digitalfire Ceramic Materials Database
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Alternate Names: F3134
|Enter the formula and formula weight directly into the Insight MDT dialog (since it records materials as formulas).|
Enter the analysis into an Insight recipe and enter the LOI using Override Calculated LOI (in the Calc menu). It will calculate the formula.
|COLE - Co-efficient of Linear Expansion||9.47|
|MLRG - Melting Range (C)||1450-1600F|
This is a USA pottery frit. Ferro now calls it Frit 3134-2.
This is a popular frit and has been used for many years as a general purpose melter across all tempreatures. Equivalents are made by many frit companies. Ferro says that it is "intended for use as a lime and borate source in partially fritted glazes, lead bisilicate glazes and low cost hobby glazes cone 06-10". But from the viewpoint of ceramic chemistry, this frit is a great 'oxide warehouse', it is useful in so many kinds of glazes, we often use it to showcase the value of Frits in formulating and adjusting glazes as (formulas of oxides rather than recipes of materials).
The reason this is billed as useful in partially fritted glazes is because of how valuable it is in supplying B2O3 (raw B2O3 sources have many issues). It gives us lots of boron about with CaO and Na2O (which most glazes need) but no Al2O3 (so it can be supplied from clay to harden and suspend the slurry).
Several factors make this frit's chemistry so attractive:
-It has almost no alumina. That means, as already stated, that Al2O3 can be supplied by clay, giving the glaze better suspension and hardening properties. Conversely, adding Frit 3134 to a recipe (to supply boron for example) does not require reduction of clay content.
-It has high sodium. That means that it's presence enables reducing feldspar content which in turn provides even more opportunity to source Al2O3 from kaolin or clay.
-It has high boron. That gives it a lot of bang-for-buck as a flux, especially in middle temperature.
-It has a very high CaO content. That makes it useful for developing chrome-tin pinks and maroons. CaO-sourcing raw materials do not normally melt at low temperatures but a frit of this chemistry (high soda and boron) does.
The high expansion of this frit is quite useful since it can be used in a frit blend to create low-temperature glazes with adjustable thermal expansion. The high boron means it can tolerate a very high alumina content from other materials, especially clay. For example, 40 Frit 3124, 40 Frit 3134 and 20 Kaolin is expansion-adjustable since the Frit 3134 can be increased at the expense of 3124 if the glaze is shivering and vice versa if it is crazing.
This frit is often used effectively as part of the strategy to substitute for Gerstley Borate in glazes. It is valuable because it contains lots of sodium and calcium while at the same time sourcing the B2O3. This often enables reducing the feldspar content in the glaze, and then replenishing the oxides contributed by both it and the GB with this frit and kaolin (the latter of which acts to suspend and harden the glaze slurry).
Since Frit 3134 contains no Al2O3, it is not a completely stable glass, it can leach in glaze slurries over time and precipitate. It is often possible to reduce its amount in favor of the more balanced Frit 3124 (where the glaze has significant feldspar). However, if you drive the clay content too low to accomodate the Al2O3-containing Frit 3124 (using ceramic chemistry), you may find the extra hassle of poorer application properties and powdering worth enduring some precipitation issues.
Sub: See also: TAM C-14, General 367-A, 4508
Out Bound Links
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In Bound Links
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Metallic oxides with 50% Ferro frit 3134 in crucibles at cone 6ox. Chrome and rutile have not melted, copper and cobalt are extremely active melters. Cobalt and copper have crystallized during cooling, manganese has formed an iridescent glass.
Defect free fired surface of alberta slip plus 20% frit 3134 at cone 6 oxidation on a dark and light burning clay body.
Crystallization of rutile is completely subdued using Ferro frit 3249 (20% with Alberta Slip) on the right (the left is frit 3134 20%)
These are 10 gram frit balls fired at 1700F. Each of them is a source of boron (B2O3), that is the magic of why they melt this low. Gerstley Borate is a raw source of boron, it has a very high LOI and is an undesireable source. But these frits have very specific uses. What are they? Frit 3124 and 3195 are base glazes, just add 15% kaolin and go. Frit 3110 raises thermal expansion (substitute some of it in if the glaze shivers). Frit 3249 lowers expansion (sub it in if the glaze crazes). Frit 3134? It is similar to 3124 but without any Al2O3, it is useful where you need more clay in the glaze (the clay can source the Al2O3 instead).
These two frits (Ferro 3124 left, 3134 right) have almost the same chemistry. But there is one difference: The one on the right has no Al2O3, the one on the left has 10%. Alumina plays an important role (as an oxide that builds the glass) in stiffening the melt, giving it body and lowering its thermal expansion, you can see that in the way these flow when melting at 1800F. The frit on the right is invaluable where the glaze needs clay to suspend it (because the clay can supply the Al2O3). The frit on the left is better when the glaze already has plenty of clay, so it supplies the Al2O3. Of course, you need to be able to do the chemistry to figure out how to substitute these for each other because it involves changing the silica and kaolin amounts in the recipe also.
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