Digitalfire Ceramic Materials Database
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The term 'ball' traces to historic mining in England where large chunks of the clay were cut from the bank in ball shapes for transport to processing.
There are hundreds of different ball clays available and they vary widely in plasticity, particle size, raw color, and drying properties. A typical ball clay powder is light grey (from lignite) or cream color and fires to a buff or cream white color with some soluble salt deposits on the fired surface. Ball clays are very plastic and much finer grained than kaolins. They are easily slaked in water when dry. Few people fully appreciate how 'sticky' and plastic these materials are until they mix some with water and work with it pure. The fine particle size also makes them impermeable to the passage of water (a small test bar can take a very long time to dry).
They are typically unvitrified at cone 10. There are a wide range of ball clays used in traditional ceramic manufacture in North American and they have surprisingly similar firing characteristics (maturity and color). In one test of 6 different ball typical clays from a range of suppliers (blended with 50% feldspar and fired from cone 6 to 10), all had the same porosity and fired appearance. Drying shrinkage and water of plasticity also was quite similar. Ball clays intended for casting have a lower drying shrinkage but also fire very similar.
Ball clays are used in ceramic bodies (porcelains, stonewares and earthenwares, casting slips, pressing bodies) because of their plastic nature combined with high firing temperature. Ball clays have very high dry shrinkage combined with high green strength and slow drying. Were it not for their iron and coal impurities, ball clays would be ideal ceramic materials. However, in practical terms, they are employed to achieve desired plasticity, but are minimized to reduce the detrimental effect on fired whiteness and drying properties.
A common starting recipe for a high temperature general purpose porcelain (as is used in electrical porcelain or extruded pottery porcelain is 25% each of ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica). The ball clay:kaolin mix can be altered to change body plasticity without significantly affecting the maturing temperature.
In North America, most commercial ball clays are mined in the southeastern US. Ball clay deposits are common and were laid by the action of slow moving water with an acidity that tended to flocculate and settle the clay. It is common to find lignite associated with ball clay, and this accounts for the almost black appearance of many varieties (when wet).
Ball clays tend to be quite refractory (PCE 28-34) and some dirtier deposits are sold as fireclays. Ball clay is not a clay mineral in itself, but contains other minerals, primarily kaolinite (but also montmorillonite, halloysite, and illite). Mica and quartz are also normally present in substantial amounts (e.g. 10-20% for Tennessee ball clays).
Ball clays vary widely in their plasticity, and it is difficult to compare them by quantitative tests because pure samples are difficult to mix and form and crack badly during drying. Thus, it is common to mix ball clay and silica 50:50 and prepare dry shrinkage, dry strength and fired strength bars (from this mix) for comparative testing. Another technique to produce a workable material is to calcine half of a sample to destroy its plasticity, then mix virgin:calcine 50:50. However most technicians find that silica dilution is advantageous for comparing color and solubles contents.
In general it may be said that English ball clays tend to have a higher dry strength (and thus drying shrinkage) than American ones, Kentucky ball clays have the lowest carbonaceous matter, English ones vitrify lower, Tennessee ones fire whitest.
Although some ball clays resist deflocculation because of hostile soluble impurities, most deflocculate very well with sodium silicate and other equivalent dispersants. A wide range of ball clay slurries and slips are used at all temperature ranges in casting processes. One common recipe uses a simple 50:50 ball clay:talc mix. This recipe and close derivatives are used in large quantities in the hobby casting market. The same mix is also dry pressed in the tile industry, and extruded for jiggering and wet processing in artware.
The refractories industry is a large user of ball clay. Common refractory materials lack plasticity and ball clay is used to help in forming and shape retention and to impart dry strength. The abrasives industry likewise uses it to bond aggregates until firing fuses the mass.
Engobes in the tile and brick industries are suspended, hardened, and adjusted to match body shrinkage by the addition of ball clay. Many pottery glazes contain ball clay to help suspend and harden them and control their shrinkage during drying (although some technicians prefer cleaner kaolins for this, claiming they gel the slurry better and prevent drip-drip during drying). It makes a big difference what ball clays are used, some produce a syrupy mess that settles while others produce a beautifully suspended creamy slurry. In North America, Old Hickory #5 and Old Hickory No. 1 Glaze ball clays work well in glazes. 10-15% ball clay should be enough to suspend a glaze, if there is any less add 1-2% bentonite. Recipes with 20% or more ball clay risk shrinking and cracking during drying.
If the iron or lignite content of ball clay is a problem, it is common to employ bentonite to reduce the ball clay requirements (5% bentonite can provide as much improvement in plasticity and dry strength as 25% ball clay). However, care is recommended to make sure a fine grade of bentonite is used to avoid fired specks (bentonite also burns darker).
Unlike a kaolin, it is difficult to establish a generic or theoretical analysis, we have provided one for a typical Kentucky ball clay.
If you use ball clay in your production there is good reason to be doing routine quality control to make sure it is remaining consistent. Ball clays are likely the most variable material you will have to deal with. They can sometimes have particulate impurities (especially lignite) and exhibit differences in soluble salts content, drying shrinkage, drying performance, fired maturity, fired color and behavior in slurries. Consider the SHAB test (see link below).
Adequate quartz content is an important factor in porcelain and whiteware bodies (it is an important structural element in the fired matrix and it is needed to prevent glaze crazing). Since ball clays contain quartz, it is possible to use less raw silica (quartz) powder in the recipe. Of course, the quartz grains in the ball clay are finer, so they will dissolve into the feldspar glass more readily.
Body Plasticity - All Bodies
Ball clay is the main plastic material used in clay bodies of all types. It is much more plastic than kaolin but also has much higher dry shrinkage and higher iron content. A typical white high temperature stoneware is often about 25% each of kaolin, ball clay, feldspar and silica.
Glaze Suspender - General
Ball clay is a fine particled clay that is universally used in glazes for suspension. If 15-20% is present no other suspender should be needed.
OM#4 ball clay test bars fired from cone 4-10 oxidation and cone 10 reduction. The yellow on bar 12 is iron stained soluble salts.
Test used to reveal the effect of soluble salts in a ball clay on the fired body and under the glaze
A test bar of ball clay fired to cone 10 reduction. Notice the black carbon core. Ball clays commonly contain carbon.
This 1000 ml 24 hour sedimentation test compares Plainsman A2 ball clay ground to 10 mesh (left) with one that same material ball milled (right). There is no sediment in the milled material.
Plainsman A2 ball clay DFAC drying disk test showing the incredible dry shrinkage of a typical ball clay and the stress it can put the clay under during drying.
Large particle kaolin (left) and small-particle ball clay (right) DFAC drying disks demonstrate the dramatic difference in drying shrinkage and performance between these two extremes.
I poured 4 teaspoons of two glazes onto a board and let them sit for a minute, then inclined the board. The one with Gleason Ball clay (right, much higher in coal and finer particle size) has settled and the water on the top of running off. The one with Old Hickory #5 ball clay has not settled at all and the whole thing is running downward. Below I have begun to sponge them off. Old Hickory No. 1 Glaze Clay is even better than #5 for suspension. The most amazing thing about this: There is only 7% ball clay in the recipe.
These are the oversize particles (from the 70, 100, 140 and 200 mesh sieves) from 100 grams of a commercial ball clay. They have been fired to cone 10 reduction. As you can see, this material is a potential cause of specking, especially in porcelain bodies. It is not only wise to check for oversize particles in clays, but firing these particles will tell you if they contain iron. A 200 mesh screen would be a good start for this test, it would catch all of these.
Pinholing on the inside of a cone 6 whiteware bowl. This is glaze G2926B. The cause is likely a combination of thick glaze layer and gas-producing particles in the body. Bodies containing ball clays and bentonites often have particles in the +150 and even +100 mesh sizes. The presence of such particles is often sporadic, thus it is possible to produce defect-free ware for a time. But at some point problems will be encountered. Companies in production either have to filter press or wet process these bodies to remove the particles. Or, they need to switch to more expensive bodies containing only kaolins and highly processed plasticizers.
These tiny black specks on the rim of a dry mug are from lignite contamination in the ball clay (I have highlighted them by wetting the surface a little). They can cause pinholing in glazes. Ball clays are air floated (after grinding, a stream of air takes away the lighter particles and the heavier ones recycle for regrinding). These particles are lighter and more difficult to separate. Ores in Tennessee are higher in coal than those in Kentucky. American and Canadian clay body manufacturers who confront ball clay suppliers with this contamination find that ceramic applications have become a very small part of the total ball clay market, complaints are not taken with the same seriousness as in the past.
Out Bound Links
These materials are specially defined for makers o...
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This is the traditional Ron Roy materials file. He...
The decision about what materials to include in th...
The process of making a clay slurry that would oth...
Most often the term stoneware refers to a high fir...
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Latin America and South America. We are working on...
Generic for building a completely custom MDT. Only...
Countries of Eastern Europe and former Soviet Unio...
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All of Asia including Turkey, Russia, Indosnesia, ...
All of continental Africa. We are working on this ...
In Bound Links
The classic white ball clay talc casting and modelling recipe has been used for many years. It is a ...
Montmorillonite, Bentonite USA
Old Hickory 56-S Ball Clay, 54S Ball Clay
Kentucky No. 1 Ball Clay
C&C Ball Clay, C and C Ball Clay
Coppen Light Ball Clay
Dresden Ball Caly
Hick F-2, F2 Ball Clay, Old Hickory F-2 Ball Clay
Fayles Blue Ball Clay
FC-340 Ball Clay
SGP #1 Ball Clay
Tennessee No. 5
Tenn #9, Tennessee #9
Hick TI-21, Old Hickory TI-21 Ball Clay
Hy Plas 64
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The principles behind formulating a porcelain are quite simple. You just need to know the purpose of...
OH #5, OH#5, Old Hickory #5 Ball Clay
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